What is a bill of lading B / L and types of bill of lading (Bill of Lading)
The bill of lading is the document of the contract of carriage, the receipt of the goods and the document of its ownership, as well as the document that can be used as support when claiming damages from the insurance. A bill of lading is a document of transportation of goods and a document that can be transferred to others and shows the ownership of the goods. Therefore, it is of great importance.
The types of bill of lading are as follows:
Ocean Bill of Lading
Non Way Sea Waybill
Charter Party Bill Of Lading
Worldwide bill of lading (Trough B / L)
Fiat Composite Bill (F. B. L) (International Federation of Forward Trade Unions)
Air way Bill
Land or Road Manual (CMR)
Railway of Landing
Courier and post Recipts of Certificate of posting
Types of maritime bill of lading
In terms of product position
Shipped Bill of Lading (“B / L” Shipped Bill of Lading)
Indicates that the goods have been delivered by the carrier and loaded on the ship. Such a bill of lading has the words “Shipped” or “On Board”.
Receipt for Shipment B / L
Indicates that the goods were received by the carrier for shipment but were not loaded. In practice, banks refuse to accept such a bill of lading unless its validity is accepted in the contract between the buyer and the seller.
In terms of number of vehicles
Direct Bill of Lading
It is used to transport goods from one port to another without changing the ship and sending the goods directly to the recipient.
Combined Bill of Lading
In the case of transporting goods with more than one type of means of transport and under combined or multimodal transport is used. Issuer of this type of bill of lading, ie multimodal transport operator; Responsible for transportation from the time of receipt of the goods until its delivery.
Influenced by the combined transportation method, groups called Non Vessel Operating Carrier (NVOC) or Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) have entered the transportation business. These carriers issue a bill of lading for the carriage of goods by ship or vehicle, which they neither own nor manage, and are mainly engaged in the carriage of goods by container. Because the expansion of the use of containers for the transportation of goods has led to the expansion and facilitation of composite transportation. In container shipping, which today includes most of the activities related to liner shipping, the shipping company is responsible for both ship management and cargo management. That is, he owns both the ship and the containers. With the advent of NVOCCs, the practice has shifted to shipping only for ship management and container and cargo management for NVOCCs.
Global bill of lading (Through Bill of Lading)
It is like a compound bill of lading, but this type of bill of lading is issued when a link in the transport chain is necessarily maritime.
In terms of the condition of the goods being transported
Clean Bill of Lading
If the bill of lading does not mention the defective goods or its packaging and there is no note attached to it, it is called a clean or undamaged or unconditional bill of lading. Of course, the bill of lading must meet these conditions. Otherwise it loses its value and credibility. Such a bill of lading states: Received in Apparent Good Order and Condition
Claused Bill of Lading
It explicitly states the defect of the product or its packaging. In letters of credit transactions, banks refuse to accept “Claused” invoices.
In terms of type of transportation services
Bill of Lading under Regular Shipping Services (Liner Bill of Lading)
This type of bill of lading is issued for the cargo of ships that have a specific departure schedule and travel certain routes. (Same liner lines)
Bill of Lading under Trump Shipping Services (Charter Party Bill of Lading)
Exported for goods transported by chartered ship. Cargo transportation under this type of bill of lading is subject to the charter (rental) contract. For example, a person rents a ship for a long time, and the person who rents the ship receives the goods to be transported from one, two or more owners. In this case, the first landlord issues a bill of lading to each owner of the goods, rather than setting up a tent party with them. These bill of lading are issued under the charter party. These types of bills of lading are not accepted by banks unless otherwise stipulated.
Other types of bill of lading:
Transshipment Bill of Lading
This type of bill of lading is only for transporting goods by sea and the goods are transferred from one ship to another, in which the origin and destination of the cargo as well as the point of transfer of goods from the first ship to the second ship, etc. are specified.
Fiata Combined Cargo Bill (FBL)
The International Union of Freight Forwarders has set it up for use by combined transport operators. Fiata bill of lading can also be issued as a sea bill of lading. The Fiata bill of lading contains the logo of the Fiata Organization and the International Chamber of Commerce
Negotiable bill of lading and non-negotiable bill of lading
Forwarder shipping companies usually deliver the goods from the seller and at the destination, by their representative to the buyer, such bill of lading as the main bill of exchange is negotiable and in the consignee (consignee) the name of the owner of the goods in The destination and in the shipper section, the sender of the goods, who is the seller, is listed, and if such goods are also credit, the recipient of the goods in the bill of lading will be the credit opening bank, which is called by the shipping company (forwarder) called the credit opening bank. Otherwise written in the name of the owner of the goods (buyer).
In some cases, forwarding companies may be transported by carrier companies, in which case the shipping companies use a non-negotiable bill of lading sent by the shipper. In this case, the forwarder’s bill of lading at the origin of its consignee at the destination represents the forwarder. , Is again endorsed by the forwarder, in the name of the buyer, whose name is included in the original bill of lading, in which case there will be no need to draw up a peace letter by shipping.