Inspection of materials and goods
Inspection of materials and goods

خانه Inspection of materials and goods

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Inspection of materials and goods

Inspection of materials and goods

Subject: Inspection of materials and goods

Headlines :

– Familiar with standard concepts and vocabulary and technical inspection

Familiar with the requirements of the National Standard Organization of Iran as well as the pre-shipment inspection procedure

Familiarity with the inspection requirements of the National Standards Organization – Evaluation and compliance method

Familiar with the inspection requirements of the Central Bank of Iran

Familiarity with the 17000 series standard

– Goods inspection method

Principles of inspection reporting

Types of inspection documents

Special and practical points

* Familiar with standard concepts and vocabulary and technical inspection including:

1- Definition of technical inspection: According to the Iran-ISO 9000 standard (2008), conformity assessment through observation and judgment along with measurement, testing or comparison with the index, whichever is appropriate, is called technical inspection of goods.

In the IEC 17000 standard, the term “conformity assessment” means proving that the specified requirements have been met in relation to a product, process, system, person or entity.

By summarizing and evaluating these two standards, we can say: review the design of the product, product, process or facility and determine their compliance with the specified requirements or with the general requirements based on professional judgment (expert opinion)

Note that the requirement in the above definition may exist in two ways: specified requirements and general requirements

* The specified requirements can be stated in the form of binding documents such as legal regulations, standards and technical specifications and can also be created by various stakeholders (from product manufacturers to buyers and consumers).

* In ISO 9000, the definition of a requirement is: “The need or expectation specified is generally implicit or mandatory. Its explanation states that the specified obligation is that which is stated, for example, in a document, and if it is not stated, it is an implicit obligation, ie in the general custom or practice of an organization or interested companies, the desired need or expectation is implicit. (That is, it is not explicitly mentioned. This is the general requirement.)

The specified requirements can be stated in the form of binding documents such as legal regulations, standards and technical specifications and can also be created by various stakeholders (from product companies to buyers and consumers).

2- The definition of pre-shipment inspection is:

Pre-shipment inspection or so-called inspection of goods is defined in the two documents of the National Standard Organization of Iran as follows:

According to the executive method of assessing the conformity of imported goods of the National Standard Organization of Iran (Third Edition), pre-shipment inspection is one of the methods of assessing the conformity of goods that is approved at the origin (before shipment) by one of the approved inspection companies in the field and scope of activity. It is done by inspecting the desired cargo.

This inspection is performed to ensure the compliance of the imported consignment with the standards, criteria or technical specifications accepted by the National Standard Organization of Iran, by submitting the purchase documents of the goods by the importer to the inspection company. The inspection company, in compliance with the provisions of this method and all the requirements of national and internationally accepted standards, will assess the conformity of the goods and issue an inspection certificate (COI) for the consignment. (COI = Certificate of Inspection)

The definition of pre-shipment inspection is described in another document entitled “Pre-shipment inspection-work procedure” number ISIRI 8509 (first edition) as follows:

All activities related to the certification of quality, quantity and price, including exchange rates, financial conditions or customs value and classification of goods that must be exported to the customs territory of the buyer country. In other words, pre-shipment inspection is an activity in which an inspection body is employed directly by an importer (government agency, company or other applicants) or by the importing country to control the specific characteristics of the goods.

This definition is taken from the International Organization of Inspection Corporation (IFIA) Rules of Procedure, 1999 edition.

3- Standard words are as follows.

The specified requirements can be stated in the form of binding documents such as legal regulations, standards and technical specifications and can also be created by various stakeholders (from product companies to buyers and consumers).

In the inspection of imported goods, the following documents have been identified, including the requirements that are required by organizations and companies:

– Letters of credit (including requirements from the central bank)

– Inspection contract or order (requirements of inspection company and importer)

– Purchase documents including pro forma, purchase invoice, order registration, bill of lading and certificate of origin, maps and catalogs (importer, seller and National Standards Organization)

– National and international standards, criteria or technical specifications (National Organization for Standardization and other international organizations)

If there is a slight difference between the above documents, the order of the documents is as follows: (Adapted from ISIRI 8509)

* documentary credit

* purchase contract

* Proforma or documents mentioned in the documentary credit or purchase contract

* Proforma in chronological order

Note that there is a slight difference here and it does not mean a difference in the technical specifications of the product, which can be considered a non-compliance. (Usually, differences in the technical specifications of the goods should be reported to the importer if observed by the inspector.)

In the inspection of goods, due to the mandatory (mandatory) standard of goods, standards are usually classified in terms of priority in the requirement before all documents, which will first be national standards and then international standards if referenced in purchase documents. This means that even if the importer in the contract with the seller wants to bring an issue contrary to the mandatory standard or ignore the requirement, the inspection company will be able to detect non-compliance.

It should be noted that the words have a special meaning in many of these documents, especially the standards, for example, “must” or shall be required and it will be necessary to do so. Whereas the word “should” or should only have a recommendatory aspect and as a result is considered non-mandatory.

Other equivalents for shall: mandatory, required, requirement

Other equivalents for should: non-mandatory, not required, recommended

Also note that the requirement stated as should does not mean that the seller or manufacturer does not do it. Rather, it has more of a Best Practice aspect, and if the manufacturer requires better conditions to do so (but can, for example, provide it in another way), there will be no prohibition on that standard.

Familiar with the requirements of the National Standard Organization of Iran and also the pre-shipment inspection procedure (according to ISIRI 8502):

Standard “Pre-shipment inspection – work procedure” – First Edition has been approved by the National Quality Management Standards Committee of the National Standards Organization of Iran on 12/13/84. This standard can be considered as the only regulation of the National Standards Organization of Iran in the field of pre-shipment inspection, which has been prepared by reputable international authorities such as the International Federation of Inspection Agencies (IFIA) and GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade).

The purpose of developing this standard is to provide a pre-shipment inspection procedure for foreign purchases for the information of relevant parties.

Scope of application of this standard for general inspection? Goods imported into the country, especially goods subject to mandatory standard regulations, the inspection condition of which is stated in the purchase documents.

First, we will define the words and terms in this standard:

Letter of Credit, or L / C for short, is a contract under which the credit-issuing bank is obliged, at the request of the customer (credit applicant or applicant), to pay in return for the documents specified in the credit. Beneficiary or allow another bank to make that payment or trade.

Pre-shipment inspection: is it general? Activities related to the certification of quality, quantity and price, including exchange rates, financial conditions or customs value, and classification of goods to be exported to the customs territory of the buyer country.

A Proforma Invoice is a document prepared by the seller before the sale, in which the price, type, quantity, quality and important characteristics (weight, size and other specific characteristics) of the product to be Sold will be notified to the buyer.

Scope of Inspection is a set of methods through which the inspection organization must certify or reject the quantity, quality, packaging and other characteristics of the subject of inspection in accordance with the conditions stated in the purchase documents.

A consignment is a set of goods mentioned in the purchase documents.

Freight Shipping (Partial Shipment) is the shipment of a part of the shipment that is allowed to be shipped frequently in the letter of credit and / or purchase contract.

Inspection organization refers to inspection companies whose qualifications are approved by the National Standard Organization of Iran and have an inspection license. (The conditions for certification are in the Iranian standard ISO IEC 17020 and the regulations for certification of inspection companies of the National Standard Organization of Iran.)

An inspection order is a document by which a request is made by the customer to the inspection organization to request an inspection of the goods. (Including the subject of inspection, scope and scope of inspection, quality of goods and specifications and technical requirements and standards, quantity, method of packaging and marking, time and place of inspection, number of inspections, reports and certificates required)

An inspection contract is a document that is concluded between the customer and the inspection organization regarding the subject of the inspection. (Including inspection order, inspection fee and how to pay it and the type of facilities and obligations of the parties)

The purchase contract is a valid document with attachments that the items agreed between the buyer and the seller and / or the manufacturer, including the type of goods, quantity, quality, scope and scope of inspection, name of inspection organization, time and time of delivery and transformation, price And how to pay the inspection fee, etc. is stated in it and has been stamped and signed by the parties to the transaction.

Purchase documents are all or one of the documents including proforma, documentary credit, purchase contract, shipping documents, inspection contract, inspection order and / or other required documents such as drawings, diagrams, brochures, catalogs, etc., which are based on The specifications contained in them are issued an inspection certificate.

Inspection fee is the amount that must be paid by the buyer or through the seller or the bank to the inspection organization for the performance of inspection services and the issuance of inspection certificates according to the purchase documents and the agreed amount.

Quantity, quality and packaging are the characteristics that can be achieved by determining the limits and scope of inspection and testing.

Inspection report is a document in which the inspection organization announces the method, steps and manner of inspection and tests performed and the results obtained.

Inspection Certificate (Inspection Certificate) is a document that is issued on the official letterhead of the inspection organization after completing and completing the inspection scope and scope, during which the quantity, quality, packaging and other characteristics of the inspected goods comply with the specifications contained in the documents. Purchase is certified.

The subject of inspection is the technical specifications and standard of quantity and quality and other desired characteristics of goods, equipment, facilities and services traded between the buyer and the seller, which the buyer must determine and request in the purchase documents.

Inclusion of pre-shipment inspection:

Pre-shipment inspection may include one or more of the following:

Commodity price certification
Quantitative and / or qualitative inspection of goods
Checking the status of packaging and marking cargo
Inspection of containers and other means of transport
Supervise the loading or unloading of goods
Sampling
Laboratory analysis or other tests
Review and audit
Providing special services if necessary based on the agreement of the inspection organization with the customer, including:

– Quantitative and qualitative guarantees in special circumstances

– Calibration and measurement

– Providing qualified experts and other required staff

– Supervising the complete plans of the industrial project, including consulting, supervising the implementation and progress report

– Consulting services within and scope of inspection

* Inspection can be according to the inspection order at the place of production, packaging, seller’s warehouse, customs or port of origin, customs or port of destination or place of installation and use.

Familiarity with the inspection requirements of the National Standards Organization – Evaluation and compliance method:

The executive method of assessing the compliance of imported goods with the document number 31/230 / R as an internal document of the National Organization of Standards of Iran was approved on 09/25/92 with the third revision number. (You can download this method from the attachment.)

The purpose of preparing this executive method is to determine the methods of assessing the compliance of imported goods subject to mandatory implementation of the standard in order to ensure their compliance with standards, criteria or technical specifications accepted by the National Standards Organization of Iran, accelerate and facilitate entry into the country and Compliance with conventional rules and procedures in world trade.

At the beginning of this method, definitions are given about the goods subject to the mandatory enforcement regulations for import, commercial and temporary importation goods, acceptable standards, accepted laboratories, inspection companies, certificate of conformity, inspection certificate (COI = Certificate of Inspection). . Then ? The method of assessing the conformity of imported goods, which leads to the issuance of the Certificate of Conformity (COC) by the General Standards Offices of the provinces, is explained.

These evaluation methods are fully explained in the attached file as follows.

The first method of conformity assessment is the same as pre-shipment inspection (inspection of goods at origin) which is carried out by one of the certified inspection companies whose scope and scope of activity is commensurate with the inspection of the intended consignment.

The second method is to evaluate the conformity of the goods at the destination.

Method 3: Obtaining a certificate of registration of goods (COR = Certificate of Registration) and registration and trademark (anonymous) (COBR = Certificate of Brand Registration) (this method of evaluation for importers who continuously one type and one model of goods with specifications and features Fixed goods are imported from one production unit and one country of origin.

Method 4: The method of assessing the conformity of special goods (for production lines, parts and machines, raw materials and intermediate goods of production that are used in industrial factories of the country and imported goods that are used in construction projects and infrastructure facilities of the country) To be.)

Method 5: Other Conformity Assessment Methods (This method is for imported goods that are imported through cocoons, sailors and border cooperatives up to the value of ???? dollars, goods that are imported in separate parts (CKD), for imported elevator parts It has applications.)

Regulations for certification of inspection companies

Inspection companies, especially commodity inspection companies, must apply for certification in accordance with the regulations of the National Standard Organization of Iran approved in 1989.

Evaluation and approval of domestic inspection companies and representatives of foreign companies is done based on Tables 1 and 2 of this regulation. The minimum score to confirm the qualification of Iranian inspection companies to inspect imported and exported goods or license renewal is 65 out of 100 points and for foreign inspection companies is at least 75 out of 100 points.

The validity period of the certification license is one year.

The scope of inspection activities is as follows:

Group 1: Foodstuffs, xerox products and vegetable oils

Group 2: Oil, petroleum products and petrochemicals

Group 3: Minerals

Group 4: Consumer goods

Group 5: Industrial goods

* Familiar with the inspection requirements of the Central Bank of Iran

The second part of the set of foreign exchange regulations entitled “Transportation of goods, insurance and inspection” by the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the last edition of which was published on 12/14/90, includes the rules for issuing inspection certificates for all imported goods in The third part of this section.

Reading this collection (especially the third part of the second part) is essential for project managers, inspection coordinators and product inspectors of third-party technical inspection companies, and buyers and sellers of imported goods.

Part 3: Regulations for issuing inspection certificates for all imported goods

1- For all imported goods, inspection certificate is required according to the standard type of goods and must be issued in accordance with the text of the accepted inspection certificate (attachments number? And?) And by authorized inspection companies (attachments number? And ??) .

Note: According to the agreement made with the National Standard Organization of Iran and the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Trade, determining and inserting tariffs for registered goods, type of standard and other conditions required by the National Standard Organization in Proforma and order registration papers, the importer and its control Responsible for the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Trade. Banks only control the order registration stamp of the said ministry and are not responsible for controlling the tariff of goods subject to order registration and will act in accordance with the standard approved by the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Trade.

2- If the importer according to the text of the attached number? The request to eliminate the inspection of the goods at the source, with the approval of the National Standard Organization of Iran, is allowed to remove the condition of the inspection at the origin by submitting the mentioned form to that bank.

Note? : Regarding floating and export rates, the elimination of providing inspection certificates only by government agencies and organizations and by completing the attached form number? It is possible by the highest official or with the signature of another virtual person introduced by him.

Note?: In the case of goods “non-testable” and “with a long test period” (Appendix No.?), It is mandatory to enter the inspection condition at the origin and its removal is not possible.

3- Presenting the original of the goods inspection certificate issued by the authorized inspection company, along with other commercial documents, to the brokerage bank is required for the transaction of documents.

4- The selection of the inspection company and its change is the responsibility of the buyer of the goods. The approval of the inspection certificate issued by the foreign authorized inspection companies by the Chamber of Commerce of the place of issuance or according to paragraph 12 of part A of the first part of foreign exchange regulations is mandatory.

Note: The name of the authorized inspection company must be received after receiving the “Letter of acceptance of inspection before shipment” issued by the branch or representative of the inspection company in Iran according to Annex No.? Stamped and inserted in the letterhead of the inspection company in terms of documentary credit.

5- The inspection company is free to choose the inspection method and place of inspection (quantity, quality and packaging) according to the type of goods in question, but the inspection should be completed by supervising the loading and delivery operations of the goods to the carrier (for air and rail) and Explicitly state in the inspection certificate that the inspected goods are the same as the goods loaded and delivered, and comply with the terms of the documentary credit and its subsequent amendments, and regarding the registration of your order and receipt of documents with Proforma and other documentary documents.

6- Due to the importance of receiving complete information and specifications of the inspected goods by the inspection companies, it is necessary to inform the importer in writing after opening the letter of credit / order registration and receiving the documents according to the form (Appendix No.?). The authorized inspection company in Iran must submit a copy of the notification must also be sent by the bank for information and follow-up to the representative of the inspection company in Iran.

7- All inspection certificates issued by inspection companies and their authorized representatives are acceptable only with the name and branded paper of the main company, whose name is mentioned in the terms of documentary credit.

8- The order to perform the inspection work and pay the inspection fee can be the responsibility of the buyer or the seller of the goods, if this cost is the responsibility of the seller, it must be explicitly accepted by the seller in the proforma or the sales contract.

Note: In cases where the inspection fee is the responsibility of the buyer, insert the condition of payment of inspection fee by the importer in credit terms or transfer of inspection fee after the order registration process and in exchange for the original bill of inspection fee issued by the inspection company approved by the Chamber of Commerce. (In the case of Iranian inspection companies, the Chamber of Commerce does not need to be approved) The door of the inspection company is unrestricted.

9- Opening the inspection salary credit to pay the inspection fee and increase it is unrestricted. Payment will be made in return for the inspection bill.

10- If the goods subject to documentary credit / order registration are allowed for you to receive documents several times, it is necessary to present a separate inspection certificate for each shipment (PARTIAL SHIPMENT) issued only by the designated inspection company, and that bank must refuse to accept the general inspection certificate. To.

11- If the consignments of a letter of credit / order registration are shipped to you from different countries, the selection of several inspection companies (one inspection company for each country) is unrestricted.

12- In case of observing any failure and violation of inspection companies, it is necessary to immediately reflect to the department in detail.

Standard 17000 review and its important points

ISO 17000 defines general terms and definitions related to conformity assessment (such as testing, inspection, certification and certification).

This standard defines the activity of assessing the compliance of the first person, second person and third party, which is common in the use of these words in inspection, and unfortunately there is no proper understanding of it in the inspection community. We will easily understand the differences.

Conformity assessment bodies, systems and conformity assessment plans are also described.

Basic terms such as specified requirement, enforcement method and review, which in many inspections, paying attention to its meanings solves many problems.

This standard also describes the principles of conformity assessment, including selection, determination (including sampling, testing, inspection, auditing) and review and verification of conformity.

Another definition of term in inspection is described as Surveillance.

Overview of Standard 17020

Pursuant to Article 2 of the Regulations for Approval of Inspection Companies and Inspection Criteria of the National Standard Organization of Iran dated 06/10/89, the inspection company and its managers must be independent of commercial sources related to the design, manufacture, supply, installation, use and maintenance of inspected items. Or are similar items and should not be involved in activities that conflict with their independence of judgment and integrity in the field of inspection activities.

Also, the inspection company must always maintain proven capabilities regarding the scope of activity and the geographical area of ​​the stated inspection.

Accordingly, the certification of domestic and foreign inspectors of goods in accordance with ISO IEC 17020 (in accordance with paragraph “a” of this standard) came into force two years after the notification of this regulation (ie, 10/06/91) .

The audit of the inspection companies applying for the ISO IEC 17020 type “A” standard certification is a priority for the National Standards Organization of Iran. Also, certified companies in connection with the certification of inspection companies can audit and award the said certificate.

Due to this requirement, in this session of the goods inspection training course, you will be acquainted with the requirements of the ISO / IEC 17020 standard according to the following topics:

– Definition of inspection, inspection body, inspection system, inspection plan

– General requirements (neutrality and independence – confidentiality)

– Structural requirements (administrative requirements – organization and management)

– Resource requirements (staff-facilities and equipment-job transfer)

– Process requirements (inspection procedures – handling of inspection samples – inspection records – inspection report and certificate – complaint and re-examination)

– Management system requirements

General inspection method

The inspection of goods should be carried out in accordance with the executive method that may be provided to inspectors in any inspection organization, taking into account the requirements of the methods and regulations of the National Standard Organization of Iran, international organizations and the customer.

In this section, the method of inspecting goods is examined in general.

After selecting the buyer (importer) of the inspection company from the list of approved inspection companies of imported goods (available on the website of the National Standard Organization of Iran), concluding a contract and inspection order and finally submitting purchase documents to the inspection company. N.

After receiving and ensuring the adequacy of the documents and receiving the inspection request (including information of place, time and subject of inspection), the inspection company makes the necessary arrangements to select the inspector with the field of work related to the shipment and if necessary approved by the customer (by sending a resume Inspector) acts.

After studying the purchase documents, the inspector makes the necessary arrangements with the manufacturer or seller and arrives at the desired location for inspection at the appointed time and monitors the desired tests or inspections and performs inspections according to the scope of inspection.

The inspector preferably takes photos of the inspection process and, while submitting the inspection report and test results and attaching the images to the report, also presents his bill or time sheet.

The inspection coordinator (inspection expert) in the inspection company makes the necessary arrangements to receive and review the inspection report along with the relevant time sheet from the inspector. After reviewing the report and correcting it if necessary, it submits the report to the customer along with the inspection invoice and inspection certificate.

Principles of inspection reporting:

The inspection report is in fact the product of the inspection activity, which specifies the result of the inspection, including conformities and non-conformities. In many inspections, the employers of the companies involved in the project may not be present at the inspection and only the inspector with the delivery of goods may be present.

In this case, all those for whom the result of the inspection is important will seek an inspection report. For contractors, the result of the inspection alone may be important, but it will certainly not be enough for the employer. The employer will need to review the inspection report to ensure that the inspection activity is carried out correctly, in which it controls the scope and method of inspection based on the inspection request.

Especially when inspection managers are preparing inspection reports, they will need inspection reports. In fact, part of a contract inspection report is usually an inspection report. Inspection managers usually review inspection reports before sending them to the employer to correct any technical or spelling errors. In some cases, the inspection report may even be referred to the inspector for correction.

In this section, the important points of the principles of inspection report in accordance with the Iranian ISO IEC 17020 standard are discussed:

1- According to paragraph 7-3 of standard 17020, the inspection body must maintain a system for recording records. Inspection reports or certificates should also be traceable to the inspector who performed it.

2- For each inspection activity performed, there must be a report or inspection certificate to be submitted. (Section 7-4-1 of Standard 17020)

3. The contents of the report or inspection certificate should include the following:

Required items:

– The identity of the issuing entity

Unique ID (report number or inspection certificate) and date of issue

– Date (s) of inspection

Identification of the inspected item (s)

– Signing or other confirmation marks, by authorized staff

Declaration of conformity if applicable

– Inspection results

Optional items:

– As a report or inspection certificate

– Identity of the employer (or the name of the original owner of the inspected goods)

– Description of the work ordered for inspection

Information about what has been removed from the main scope of the work

– Identification or brief description of the method (s) and method (s) of inspection used, mentioning deviations, additions or exceptions to the agreed methods and methods of execution

– Identify the equipment used for measurements / tests

Whenever relevant and if not specified in the inspection method or procedure, refer to or describe the sampling method and information about the location, time, method of sampling and the sampler

– Information about the place of inspection

– Information about environmental conditions during the inspection, if any

– A statement that the inspection results are exclusively related to the work ordered or the item (s) or inspected

The statement that the inspection report should not be duplicated, except in its entirety

-Sign or seal of the inspector

– Names (or unique identifications) of employees who have performed the inspection and in cases where secure electronic authentication has not been performed, their signatures

4. An inspection body should issue an inspection certificate without inspection results only when it can also submit an inspection report containing the inspection results so that both the inspection certificate and the inspection report are traceable to each other. (Section 7-4-3)

5. All mandatory items in the inspection report must be reported correctly, accurately and clearly. If the inspection report or certification includes the results provided by the subcontractors, such results should be clearly identified.

6. Amendments or appendices to an inspection report or inspection certificate must be submitted after issuance. A modified report or certificate must identify the replaced report or certificate.

Types of inspection documents based on EN:

Inspection documents include documents that the manufacturer or seller prepares and submits to the inspector as quality control supporting documents.

These documents usually include Declaration of Conformity, Test Reports, Material Test Certificates, and Test Certificates.

Depending on the level of responsibility defined for the inspector and the manufacturer, various types of inspection documents can be defined.

For example, if a third party inspector or employer inspector (buyer) is present at the test (and validates the test results), the manufacturer may provide a Type 3.2 inspection certificate.

Standard for inspection of metal products, EN 10204: 2004, is one of the most common standards used in the preparation of certificates or inspection documents such as material certification or test or test certification.

This standard is somewhat similar to the ISO 10474 standard. Documents such as a manufacturing (sales) contract or contract documents such as a material request or an inspection and testing plan (ITP) for each inspection activity usually specify what type of certification should be provided by the manufacturer.

These documents include documents of types 1-2, 2-2, 1-3 and 2-3.

Evidence 1-2 is just a statement or declaration called the Declaration of Compliance. Sometimes called Letter of Conformity. In this type of document, only the manufacturer states that he has made the goods according to the standard and specifications of the contract or order. (This document does not include test results.)

The Type 2-2 document, known as the Test Report, presents the test results with a statement of compliance. This document is signed only by the manufacturer.

Document 1-3 is a type of certificate issued by a certified inspection representative of the manufacturer (which is independent of the production unit). In this document, the test results are presented along with the compliance with the specifications stated in the order in the certificate.

In type 2-3 certification, the buyer or employer inspector or third party inspector must also validate the inspection certificate.

At the end of standard EN 10204 is a table that simply explains the difference between this type of document.

Important Note: In this standard, the terms Specific Inspection and Non-Specific Inspection are described as follows:

Non-specific inspection: This type of inspection is performed by the manufacturer to ensure that the product specifications comply with the requirements of the order according to their instructions. Inspections may be performed on products that are not offered to the buyer. (Documents type 2.1 and 2.2 are issued on the basis of non-special inspection.)

Special inspection: This type of inspection is performed before delivery, based on product specifications and to ensure compliance with order requirements. Inspection should be done on products that are offered to the buyer. (Documents type 3.1 and 3.2 are issued based on special inspection.)

Types of inspection documents based on ISO:

According to the buyer’s wishes and the requirements of the purchase order (contract), the documents related to the goods purchased by the seller or manufacturer are provided to the buyer. One of these documents, which is very important in ensuring product quality control based on manufacturing standards and order specifications, is an inspection document that has different types based on different levels of quality control and inspection in accordance with ISO 10474, 1991 edition, as steel and steel. products-Inspection Documents, defined.

Of course, this standard has been published by the Iranian Organization for Standardization and Industrial Research No. 6650.

Note: There is another standard related to different types of inspection documents numbered EN 10204: 2004, which is used in some contracts to classify inspection documents. It should be noted that the previous edition of this standard (EN 10204: 96) is similar to the 91st edition of ISO 10474.

According to the title of this standard, the types of inspection documents in this standard are defined for steel and steel products, but if it is agreed in the contract or purchase order, this standard can also be used for other non-steel goods.

Inspection certificate means a certificate or report of an independent inspector designated by official authorities, manufacturer, seller or buyer.

In this standard, two types of inspection and test are specifically and non-specifically defined as follows:

Specific testing & inspection: Inspection and testing before delivery of goods in order to comply with the requirements of the purchase order on the product (or test unit) of which the product is part.

Non-specific testing (nonspecific testing & inspection): Inspection and testing performed by the manufacturer, based on the manufacturer’s executive methods, on the product (which may not be the delivered product) in order to comply with the requirements of the purchase order.

For example, in a factory, products numbered serial S.N-128 to S.N-190 are produced and stored for sale. A request to purchase 50 of the mentioned goods has been issued by the buyer, so that a special inspection and test is required in that request. In this case, the goods selected for the test must be inspected and tested from among the 50 delivered goods. That is, if in the packing list (packaging list) issued by the seller of serial goods SN-130 to SN-180 for delivery to the buyer, the documents related to the test and inspection must include the same serial number and, for example, the relevant documents Not accepted for SN-185 product.

The types of inspection documents that are issued based on these two types of inspection and test include type 2 and type 3 inspection documents with the following categories.

Type 2 Inspection Certificates: This type of certificate is issued by the manufacturer after inspection and testing performed by authorized personnel of the manufacturer (who may be members of the production department). These documents include three categories of documents type 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3.

Type 3 inspection documents: This type of documents is issued after inspection and testing by authorized personnel (independent of the production department) based on special inspection and testing. This type of document includes 3 categories of documents type 3-1 A, 3-1 B, 3-1 C and 3-2.

Type 2-1 inspection certificate (certificate of conformity): A certificate issued by the manufacturer on the basis of non-special inspection and test, in which it certifies the conformity of the offered product with the requirements stated in the order. This type of certificate is also called a Certificate of Conformity (COC). This document does not include test and inspection results.

Type 2-2 inspection certificate (test report): A certificate issued by the manufacturer based on non-specific inspection and test, in which it certifies the conformity of the offered product with the requirements stated in the order. This document includes the results of non-specific tests and inspections. In fact, the test results, including the certificate of conformity of the goods with the order, are issued in a document called the test report.

Type 2-3 inspection certificate (special test report): A certificate issued by the manufacturer based on inspection and special test, in which it certifies the conformity of the offered product with the requirements stated in the order. This document includes the results of special tests and inspections.

Type 3 inspection documents are called Inspection Certificates. Inspection certificate is a document that is issued based on inspection and testing and in accordance with the technical specifications contained in the order or in accordance with official regulations and related rules. Tests are performed on the supplied goods or inspection unit (of which the delivered goods are part).

Inspection Certificate Type 3-1 A: It is a certificate issued and validated by the inspector in accordance with the official regulations.

Type 3-1 B Inspection Certificate: A certificate issued by an independent production department and validated by one of the authorized personnel independent of the production department.

Inspection certificate type 3-1 C: It is a certificate that is issued and validated according to the technical specifications in the order by the authorized representative of the buyer.

Type 3-2 Inspection Report: When the inspection certificate is validated by a specific agreement between the authorized representative of the manufacturer and the buyer, it is known as the Inspection Report type 2-3.

Note: Validation of inspection documents by authorized persons is done in the form of a signature or stamp.

* Familiarity with product standards (Special points of ASTM standard):

One of the most common standards in inspection, especially raw material inspection, is the American Association of Materials and Testing Standards (ASTM). Many times unfamiliarity with the proper use of these standards leads to incorrect results that may cause irreparable damage due to improper and timely decisions of the inspector, the project and the companies involved.

In this session, very important points (including 12 points) are expressed in the form of practical techniques for the correct use of standards, and in particular ASTM standards.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an international standardization organization that sets technical standards (generally agreed and voluntary) for a wide range of materials, products, Publishes and develops systems and services.

More than 12,000 standards have been published by the ASTM International Association so far under the Consensus Process (members’ consensus). The ASTM International Association publishes the ASTM Standards Yearbook annually in hard copy or CD. ASTM standards are created in six categories as follows:

Standard Specifications
Standard Test Method
Standard Practice
Standard Guide
Standard Classification
Terminology Standard

The ASTM Yearbook contains 15 sections as well as a main list as follows:

Iron and steel products
Non-ferrous metal products
Test methods and methods of metal analysis
Construction
Petroleum products, lubricants (oils) and fossil fuels
Related colors and coatings and aromatics
textiles
Plastics
Rubber
Electrical and electronic insulation
Water and environmental technology
Nuclear, solar and geothermal energy
Medical equipment and services
General methods and tools
General, chemical and applied products
Index or main list of all sections and volumes

The English index is as follows:

  1. Iron and Steel Products
  2. Nonferrous Metal Products
  3. Metals Test Methods and Analytical Procedures
  4. Construction
  5. Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels
  6. Paints, Related Coatings, and Aromatics
  7. Textiles
  8. Plastics
  9. Rubber
  10. Electrical Insulation and Electronics
  11. Water and Environmental Technology
  12. Nuclear, Solar, and Geothermal Energy
  13. Medical Devices and Services
  14. General Methods and Instrumentation
  15. General Products, Chemical Specialties, and End Use Products
  16. Index to all sections and volumes

Here are some tips for commodity inspectors to use these standards correctly:

First point: The first step to find the standard for the product in question is to review the product documentation, including the contract and its attachments. Usually in maps or datasheets and sometimes technical specifications of the product (Specification) information about the standard related to the product is provided.

If a standard was not referenced (especially in cases where the product standard is not mandatory) you can use ASTM to find the relevant standard and offer it to the employer (buyer) or manufacturer. If agreed, you can use the standard.

Tip 2: Always try to use the latest version of the standard. This is usually mentioned in one of the clauses of the purchase contract or inspection order.

Third point: ASTM standards usually have a general requirements section (GENERAL REQUIREMENTS) that can be applied to a series of standards. Note the following as examples: (You can download the standards from the attachment.)

– ASTM A105 standard is related to the standard of specifications of forged goods made of carbon steel for piping purposes. According to paragraph 4 of this standard (general requirements), the other two standards A961- ASTM- and A788 ASTM- are considered as general standards. According to the description, all forged products of standard A105 ASTM – must comply with the requirements of standard A961, and any non-compliance with the general requirements is considered non-compliance. If there are similar requirements in both standards, the requirements of A105 will be preferred.

What are the general standards:

– Vocabulary and specialized technical terms related to the desired product (for example, definition of forge)

– Complete definitions of SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS in the final part of the standard of each product

– Tables containing tolerances of chemical or mechanical analysis

– Manufacturing and melting methods

– Some requirements are not mentioned in the main standard and therefore the general requirements must be reviewed.

Fourth point: Note that some of the requirements mentioned in the standard will be applicable if agreed with the buyer and manufacturer. Also, the items mentioned at the end of each standard under the heading of SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS can be applicable only if it is stated in the purchase order or the buyer agrees with the manufacturer in advance.

Fifth point: Scope of application (SCOPE) of the product is usually given in the first paragraph of the relevant standard, which is very important and includes applications in temperature and pressure or specific application in the industry, as well as standard restrictions in terms of application, dimensions and weight. . Sometimes it is easy to read this section to see if the relevant standard for the application is selected correctly or not?

Sixth point: If the standard is specified with the suffix M, ie A105-M, metric unit (SI) and otherwise inch-pound will be applicable. (Each unit must be used completely separately and mixing them will cause the product to conform.)

Seventh Note: In paragraph 2 of the standard, the standard references used in the preparation of this standard are listed. Sometimes it is important to know the reference standard.

Note 8: In paragraph 3 of the standard, the information that must be included in the purchase order is provided. This issue should be given more attention by buyers.

Ninth point: It is a very important point that should be considered by product inspectors when reviewing product documentation in accordance with the relevant standard. Some of the test requirements are not mentioned in the product standard (A105). For example, see paragraph 6 of the A105 standard, which deals with chemical test requirements, and it is not clear whether the chemical test refers to the final product or the chemical melting test. Also, the number of tests and how it is not explained. The chemical requirements are fully explained by reference to A961 (paragraph 8).

Tip 10: Usually when inspecting raw materials you may encounter surfaces that have already been repaired or even need to be repaired. For example, in the case of A105, according to the standard (paragraph 10), the possibility of repair by welding will be possible only by the manufacturer and with the prior approval of the buyer. Also, other requirements, including welding instructions and its approval and performing heat treatment and other cases must be done in accordance with paragraph 10.

Tip 11: Note again that information such as the acceptance of surface defects of the product or appearance defects may not be included in the product standard, so the general requirements will be helpful. (See paragraph 15 General requirements of A961.)

Tip 12: Pay attention to other product requirements, including marking, packaging, certification, and certification or test reports. ASTM standards usually do not stipulate specific requirements for the submission of a Material Test Certificate (MTC). However, what determines is the contract or purchase order, which usually requires the submission of a certificate or test report (TEST REPORT) according to the standard EN 10204, and the inspectors of the goods are obliged to review and control the relevant documents.

Familiarity with measurements, tolerances and measuring and inspection equipment and calibration requirements:

According to the definition of inspection given in ISO 8402, inspection is an activity that includes measuring, testing and measuring or measuring one or more characteristics to be inspected and comparing the results with the specified requirements to determine the compliance of each specification. Similarly, the definition of conformity assessment given in ISO / IEC Guide 2 or ISO 9000 includes observations and judgments that are accompanied by measurements, tests or measurements.

As you know, in order to inspect the goods and comply with the standard specifications or requirements (in the drawings or technical specifications), the specified measurements and tests are definitely required.

In this session, we try to introduce some types of common measurements and inspection equipment. Finally, the importance of calibration from an inspection point of view will be discussed.

Types of measurements and common measuring equipment

1- Dimensional measurement (length, diameter, thickness, curvature):

When in an inspection plan, dimensional measurements are required in accordance with the standard or product drawings, the inspector takes dimensional measurements. This measurement includes general dimensions and in some cases partial dimensions specified in the map. A tape measure is usually used to measure the length according to the relevant accuracy, and an inside gauge is used to measure the thickness of the caliper and to measure the inside diameter (in pipes or flanges).

Sometimes it is necessary to measure the thickness of the product surfaces. As you know, with calipers, it is only possible to measure the thickness at the edges of the piece, so ultrasonic thickness gauges are usually used to measure the thickness on other surfaces.

In some cases, the product has a special curvature, such as the lens (cap or head) of tanks or curved parts. In such cases, it is necessary to measure the curvature of the piece by templates that are pre-made with a specified radius or curvature.

2. Measurement of paint thickness:

You will definitely need paint thickness gauges to control the quality or inspect the paint and coating. These devices are commonly used in projects today. Its ultrasonic type is very practical.

3- Measuring the temperature / relative humidity:

The conditions for applying the paint and coating require special requirements, ie the temperature and humidity must be controlled during the painting operation. The inspector of goods may inspect in the final stages and not be present at this stage.

Temperature measurement is also important in welding that requires preheating and postheating steps or temperature control between passes. The goods inspector may not be present during these steps either.

4- Weight measurement:

Sometimes measuring the weight of goods or parts is especially important. For example, in pipes to ensure the weight of the pipe according to the standard (which is also a way to control the thickness of the pipe).

Also, sometimes the number of pieces can not be counted or it takes a long time to count and there is a possibility of wrong counting. Well, by counting the number of similar parts and their weight, you can easily get the number by measuring the total weight of the same parts.

Depending on the type of product and the measurements required, there are many parameters to measure that do not fit into this category. For example, non-stationary mechanical equipment such as pumps, turbines, and compressors require specialized measuring equipment to measure rotor speed, vibration, sound, or noise. Or electrical or electronic equipment Requires appropriate equipment to measure frequency, voltage, amps, and electrical parameters.

The following is what the inspector should know and note about the measurement:

– Must already know what measurements are required in accordance with the plan, technical specifications, inspection plan and product standard.

– Preferably have the necessary coordination with the manufacturer or seller regarding the availability of measuring equipment and their calibration.

– Before using the measuring equipment, check the specifications of the calibration label on it and the calibration certificate sheet and its validity date. Also mention the calibration certificate number and its validity date in the inspection report.

– Ensure that measured tolerances are available. Measurement tolerances are usually mentioned in drawings or technical specifications or standards. Otherwise, it must receive tolerances from the seller (usually with the approval of the employer).

– Before the final measurement, check the dimensional reports and manufacturer’s measurements. Many times the manufacturer will deliver the goods to the inspector without prior measurement, which would be a mistake.

– Immediately after the measurement, prepare the relevant report and sign it. Even if the report is not typed. There is a possibility of forgetting or losing information.

– If the parts are similar and you are going to inspect randomly or randomly, be sure to specify the selected inspection samples in the inspection report. Also make all the necessary measurements in the selected part.

– If you see the measurement with the wrong method by the manufacturer, be careful not to fall into the trap of measurement error. Sometimes the size you want is not given in the map and you need to do math or geometric calculations to get it. Try to get a full size map from the manufacturer or find the desired dimensions in the part design program (like AutoCAD).

Author: persian / Date: 2017-10-26
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