Investigation and pathology of Iranian handmade carpet exports
Studies show that the marketing of handmade carpets in Iran is not pursued scientifically and still has a traditional aspect and after producing carpets to find customers.
History of Iranian handmade carpets
To study the history and origin of this art in Iran, we must find the oldest Iranian carpet, namely the Pazyryk carpet, which is actually a horse-drawn carpet. The armament of the city of Petersburg kept being examined. According to Professor Rodenko, this carpet was made by Parthian or Median tribes and was woven in the northern region of Khorasan.
Professor Seyed Reza Khoshknabi believes that the discovery of this carpet, which is about three thousand years old, has made it more difficult to research the history of the carpet, because the Pazyryk carpet is woven with symmetrical knots and has “36” knots per square centimeter, thus making ridges. The number of the carpet is “40”. A carpet woven with ridge number “40” and with a symmetrical knot reaches the third or fourth period of carpet weaving. That is, at the time of weaving, the art of carpet weaving has a history of three to four centuries and has gone through two to three periods, and considering that each period of carpet weaving is calculated in terms of the evolution of a thousand years. The first period, which was the method of single-weaving, took three thousand years with the Pazyryk carpet, and the date of the origin of carpet weaving goes back to six thousand years.
(Najjar Firoozjaei, 2002) While little research has been done in the field of marketing of handmade carpets in Iran. To export carpets, reduced quality, poor advertising, poor management and planning vacuum to identify the tastes of different countries and nations, lack of familiarity with target markets and poor participation or holding exhibitions of handmade carpets are mentioned. Iranian handmade carpets are still traditional and not suitable for world markets, while Iranian handmade carpets, because they have been traded for a long time, need advertising that can maintain its high position, and this requires coordination. In all aspects of advertising, protecting the needs and sensitivities of customers, paying attention to changes in buyer groups and controlling the behavior of competitors and using new methods of exchange (Aziz Panah, 2001)
The trend of Iranian hand-woven carpet exports has fluctuated sharply in recent decades. Obviously, in order to have a comparative advantage in carpet exports, it must have effective marketing.
Handmade carpets are among the products that have a lot of added value and on the other hand have created employment for many people in the country, especially the villagers. It can be said that carpets have a special place in the national economy in terms of employment, added value and exports. (Abedi and Mirzaei, 2003)
Investigating the role and position of handmade carpet industry in the national economy
In order to stimulate the hand-woven carpet sector to increase Wi-Fi production, it is necessary to pay more attention to the two elements, both directly and indirectly. To be more precise in terms of policy, it should be said that:
1- By stimulating the elements of final demand, especially exports and market side policies, we can help increase the production of handmade carpets (direct policy).
2- As a complementary policy, the links between the handmade carpet sector and other sectors should be strengthened (furniture, yarn and fabric, synthetic fibers, various colors, wholesale and retail services).
There are three views on handmade rugs:
1- The first view emphasizes the lack of competitive advantage of Iranian handmade carpets in international markets and the low per capita income of carpet weaving. In this regard, handmade carpets have a very low added value and labor productivity in this industry is very low. Conditions, ie low wages of carpet weavers, in different international markets of Iranian carpets are higher than other competing countries and Iranian carpets have no competitive advantage. Therefore, this group concludes that carpet weaving should gradually decrease and give way to other jobs and government support. It will not affect the improvement of the industry.
2- The second view emphasizes the government’s support for the carpet industry due to the existence of significant carpet weavers and the cultural and heritage value of handmade carpets. According to this view, in addition to commercial production of carpets, the artistic dimension of carpets should be considered.
3- The third view emphasizes the government’s support for the carpet industry due to their significant contribution to job creation as well as the cultural and heritage value of handmade carpets (as in the second view), but in addition to the cases mentioned, a weak move towards weaving and quality improvement. Value for handmade carpets have a special emphasis. (Falihi, 2008)
An overview of the economic, social and marketing dimensions of Iranian handmade carpets
Iranian handmade carpet with a history of several thousand years, has long been considered by people around the world and today all over the world the name of carpet is inextricably linked with the name of Iran. Iranian handmade carpet is a multidimensional product and has technical aspects, Artistic, social and economic are very wide.
According to the statistics and statements of those involved in the sale of Iranian handmade carpets, due to fundamental changes in economic dimensions, purchasing power and cultural aspects of consumption pattern among domestic consumers of handmade carpets, the active and widespread domestic market has faced a severe recession.
In relation to foreign (international) markets, considering that carpets are in the collection of luxury goods with consumers. Therefore, the demand for it is strongly dependent on income. As the income of individuals increases, the number of applicants increases and in the period of economic recession and decrease in personal income, the amount of demand decreases. Economic and non-economic variables are closely related. (Azizi, 2003)
Cultural status of Iranian handmade carpets
The most prominent dimensions of handmade carpets are as follows:
• It is the only commodity whose name is associated with the name of Iran.
• A special share of Iranian art and civilization is due to carpets.
• It has long been one of the best ways to transfer the original culture of Iran to other societies.
• Its production history and experience in it is nearly three thousand years.
• This industrial art has a native technology.
• Has great support for designs and maps with regional diversity.
Social status of Iranian handmade carpets
Handmade carpets are also very important from a social point of view and related indicators:
Employment of a large number of urban, rural and nomadic population of Iran in full-time or part-time or in the form of seasonal activities.
Pre-weaving activities: designers, painters, craftsmen, etc.
Post-weaving activities: workers and specialists in the weaving and finishing sector, traders, exporters, Yaban market, etc.
B- Stabilization of rural population
Helping to stabilize a part of the rural and nomadic population of the country and preventing their migration and playing a complementary role along with agriculture, animal husbandry and horticulture in the villages and increasing the income of the villagers and finally filling leisure time and unemployment are prominent social dimensions of this element.
Economic status of Iranian handmade carpets
From an economic point of view, it is important to pay attention to the carpet industry, because first of all, the added value of this industry is about 65%. Secondly, the products of this industry constitute the largest figure of non-oil exports. Every year, with the help of this commodity, a part of the balance of trade payments is compensated. In this way, a significant amount of the country’s income is earned. No other commodity other than oil is so valuable. It also expands the volume of production and adds to the gross national product. (Heshmati Razavi, 2001)
Demand situation in the domestic market
Domestic market demand forces domestic companies to produce and market new products. The complexity of products and the timing of their introduction depend on the characteristics of domestic demand.
Important elements of domestic market demand
1- The needs of domestic buyers
2- The size of the domestic market growth model
3- The mechanism by which the needs of domestic buyers are related to foreign companies.
In assessing the demand situation in the domestic market, it is important to consider the complexity of the distribution network, buyers’ liking, market size, demand growth rate model, demand uncertainty, market saturation time and the possibility of domestic buyers accessing foreign markets. (porter; 1990)
Economic factors affecting the demand for handmade carpets
1- Household expenses on handmade carpets
2- The price of handmade carpets
3- The price of machine-made carpets and rugs
4- Real income of consumers
Challenges and difficulties
1- Increasing the number of competitors: At present, the competitors of this industry, which have been several countries, including China, Turkey and Afghanistan, have increased, and countries such as India, Egypt, Pakistan, Morocco and Nepal, as well as Romania, Albania and Bulgaria are struggling. They produce carpets.
2- Stealing Iranian designs: Rival countries have used Iranian designs to produce similar carpets, which has caused a lot of damage to the carpet industry in our country.
3- Sanctions: The existence of political issues and the overshadowing of carpet exports due to sanctions and the non-accession of Iran, the World Trade Organization along with other bottlenecks on the export and supply of carpets in world markets can affect. Of course, under these conditions, Iran has still maintained its upward trend.
4- Inconsistency of production with market needs: Little research has been done in the field of handmade carpet marketing in Iran due to shortcomings such as lack of up-to-date information about consumer demands and tendencies, lack of attention to customer needs and sensitivity, management and planning gap In identifying the tastes of different countries and not being accurately acquainted with the demand of target markets and industry in participating in or holding international exhibitions of handmade carpets.
5 – Lack of advertising and optimal marketing: One of the important points in this industry is advertising. Handmade carpets need non-traditional advertising to be able to maintain its high position and this requires coordination in all aspects of advertising and attention to customer needs and sensitivities , Paying attention to changes in buyer groups and controlling the behavior of competitors and using new exchange methods.
Marketing in Iran is not pursued scientifically and still has a traditional aspect and after producing carpets, action is taken to find a customer.
6- World Economic Crisis: Considering that carpet is in the collection of luxury goods and the demand for it is strongly dependent on income. Therefore, the trade of handmade carpets is closely related to changes in economic and non-economic variables. 
7- Using substandard raw materials: Increasing the price of raw materials increases the cost, as a result of which some manufacturers have turned to substandard raw materials, which are cheaper, which is one of the main reasons for the decline and decline in carpet quality. In this industry.
8- Lack of variety in designs: This has caused people to turn to machine-made carpets that have a lot of variety in color and design, and also in global markets due to the theft of Iranian designs, carpets that have similar Iranian designs and at a lower price. They are a good choice to replace Iranian carpets.
9- Lack of adequate financial and moral support for weavers: Low wages of weavers and lack of insurance for those involved in carpet production are among the most important problems that require stability in existing laws and awarding prizes and encouragement to encourage and support producers in this industry. Is. 
Solutions and suggestions
1- Government support: Today, carpet survival as a source of economic income for households and foreign exchange requires the maintenance and development of export markets and government support. Through sending business delegations, extensive advertising, carpet weavers’ insurance, investment in training and transferring customer tastes to the production body, etc.
2- Creativity in design and registration: Encouraging carpet designers to draw designs according to the tastes of different markets without compromising the originality of color and original designs of Iranian carpets. Designers and painters can develop this industry with a careful look at the past and the future with creativity and innovation, and at the same time, designs, designs and patterns of Iranian carpets must be registered worldwide to prevent the theft of these designs. (Currently, this has started with the help of cultural heritage.)
3- Carpet festivals and currency celebrations of activists in this field: This can improve the direct supply system with the support and supervision of the government and be in the forefront of the work instead of the central store exhibition. Holding festivals and conferences honoring carpet activists is very important in the growth and development of carpets.
4- Customer orientation: Carpet is not only a beautiful and exquisite product but also practical and consumable, and buyers pay attention to all its cultural, artistic, social and economic dimensions. Customer orientation enhances added value and the artistic status of the carpet.
5 – Training: To increase competitiveness, in addition to the above, training among manufacturers and exporters is very important and at all levels, including manufacturers – exporters and marketing and advertising need well-written, advanced and up-to-date training. , Seems necessary.
Iranian handmade carpet is a symbol of Iranian culture, taste and art, and since it is a multidimensional product and has different aspects. It is very important to maintain and protect this industry, pay attention to productivity and reduce the cost price, send trade delegations to target countries to develop the market, invite foreign trade delegations, advertise the quality and advantage of Iranian carpets and support the activists of this The field makes the art-carpet industry as one of the main sources of non-oil exports to gain a higher position in the world arena. It is hoped that with a targeted plan of subsidies and planning and forecasts made in the field of government support packages, the country’s economy will be in a more favorable position.
Turn and provide a more suitable platform in the field of economic activities, especially the carpet industry and its export.