If you look at other laws and regulations such as The Hague, The Hague / Hague (1968), Hamburg, CMR, CIM, FBL (Fiata Combined Transport Bill of Lading) We see that the ceiling of the carrier’s obligations is different, but they have a uniform status. Determined while the rules and regulations relating to composite carriage documents prepared by ICC / UNCTAD, if composite carriage also includes sea freight SDR 67/666 for each package or? SDR per kilogram gross weight of cargo (whichever is greater) In the absence of sea freight, SDR 33.8 per kilogram of gross cargo weight is determined.

In Iran, insurance companies for container transport of goods? 20% discount rate for W.A, F.P.A, All Risk conditions. Foreign insurers have divided the insurance coverage of the container into three separate parts, which are:

Container body insurance
Liability insurance for third parties resulting from the relocation of the container
Carrier Liability Insurance

Container transportation has greatly reduced the damage caused by pilfrage of goods on the shipping route or at terminals and entry and exit points. But there is always the risk that the container may be stolen. The examination of the damages caused by the transportation of goods by container shows the following figures.

Damage to the container based on the location of the damage

60% in the terminal
On the roads 15%
On the railway 15%
At sea / ship 10%
Almost insignificant on the plane

Damage to the container based on the site of impact:

Container roof 30%
Container walls 15%
15% in the container
Container floor 15%
Elsewhere in the container 25%

Damage to the container based on the cause of the damage:

Carelessness in moving 50%
Careless storage and closing
It is 25% on the ship

Excessive pressure when
Shipping includes 10% bad weather

Other factors including the weakness of the container body 5%

Recognition of container terminals in Iran

Basically, container transportation in Iran has not made much progress, but in any case, the railway has 740 flat wagons and about 1900 edge wagons that can be used to transport containers in Iran. Iran-Jolfa Railway, in addition to having storage and clearance facilities for containers, has rail cranes suitable for moving containers. In Tabriz, in a station called Sabalan, which is located 15 km from this city, it has suitable unloading and loading facilities. Mehrabad station – Isfahan railway – Mashhad railway station also has suitable unloading and loading facilities. Shahid Rajaei port – Imam Khomeini also They have suitable facilities for loading and unloading containers.

Common tariffs in the country’s container terminals

According to the resolution dated 2/29/1370 of the Supreme Transport Council, in case of excessive stopping of the containers, based on the allowed stopping days, in addition to the container fare, the stopping fee must be paid to the transport company as follows.

Volumetric weight calculation

In the air transportation industry, in addition to the actual weight of the cargo, which is measured with scales or scales, the cargo volume is also considered to calculate the cargo price, because due to the limited cargo space of the aircraft, the cargo is heavy and at the same time less space than the cargo area. Occupying aircraft is more cost-effective for freight companies. Therefore, airlines use a formula according to which every cubic meter of cargo must be at least ??? Kg, otherwise companies will use the weight calculated by measuring the volume as a criterion for calculating the cost. It is compared and whichever is greater is chosen as the payable weight.

Equivalent weight = 6000 / (length x width x height)

* Dimensions in centimeters

If in practice we have more than one package with the same dimensions, the number of packages must also be in the product of the above multiplication, and if the dimensions of the packages are different, first the product of multiplication for packages of the same size must be calculated, then added together and finally the number ?? ?? Be divided.

What is Finance?
What is Finance?

In cases where the seller of the goods refuses to accept the usufruct credit, the buyer usually asks a financial company to enter into a transaction and pay the seller in cash and receive the principal and interest from the buyer at the maturity of the usufruct. .
These institutions are called Financers.

What is USANCE L / C?
What is ? Usance means term, term, interest rate and in international trade tradition means guaranteed credit transaction. Usance fee is the same interest that the buyer of the goods (credit applicant) pays in addition to the price of the goods for the given deadline.

Import: Import means the entry of goods into the customs territory of a country that has different types:
A- Definitive import
B- Temporary import
C- Returned goods
D- Transit (internal and external)
A- Definitive import: There are various methods, the most important of which are:
1- Import from the currency purchased from the banking system to open credit
2- Importing Ella with free currency to open credit
3- Import versus export from the place of export license in the name of the exporting person (non-transferable)
4- Import in exchange for export to Central Asian and African countries by presenting an export license in the name of the exporter or in another name with a formal transfer (there is a right to transfer to another for once).
5- Import without transferring foreign currency from the place of foreign investment after the approval of the Investment Organization (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance)
6- Import without transferring currency from the list of authorized items.
7- Import without transferring currency from the place of approvals of the commission? Person based in the Ministry of Commerce

Procedures for registering the order of import of goods:

Observance of technical criteria for registering goods orders

Submitting the required documents for registering the order of goods, including a valid business card, membership card of the Ministry of Commerce, order registration papers signed by the applicant, obtaining the necessary legal permits based on the book of export and import regulations, Proforma principle and its copy

Observe the instructions related to issuing amendments and renewing and canceling the registration of orders if necessary
How to register the order workflow:
– Applicant to register and join the database of the Ministry of Commerce by completing the registration form, providing the required documents and receiving a membership card
– Submitting order registration documents to the relevant official in the Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade to control the documents
– Examining the expertise of the documents and reviewing the import conditions of the requested goods and compliance of the submitted documents with the existing instructions and relevant regulations and reviewing the tariff of the goods based on the H.S system.

– Confirmation at noon of order registration papers for complete files after reviewing the following:
* Control and adjust documents for stamp and 8-digit number
* Check the type of transaction, order registration and compliance for the relevant stamp
* Inserting a stamp in the order registration papers and the original proforma
* Calculation of commission and issuance of receipt equal to the amount of Rial value of the goods

Delivery of order registration documents, proforma and other documents to the applicant
B- Temporary import:
Temporary importation is another type of import and it means that sometimes some goods enter the country temporarily for a certain purpose and leave the country after the period for which the above purpose was provided. like the :
* Foreign goods that are imported to participate in international exhibitions.
* Goods that are imported for repair and completion.
* Aerial filming and photography devices and scientific or technical studies, etc.
* Vehicles and containers for transporting goods
* Goods that are temporarily imported according to international customs agreements.

C- Returned goods:

There are goods that enter the country and are returned abroad for some reason. Returned goods are basically classified as uncertain and temporary imports.

D- Transit (internal and external):
* Foreign transit means that foreign goods enter and leave another border point in order to cross Iranian territory. These types of goods are not considered as definitive import and export.
* Domestic transit means that the non-customs goods are transported from the authorized customs office to another customs office, for example, the transportation of goods from one border customs office or within the country to another customs office inside the country.

– Payment methods in commercial transactions:
These methods are divided into two main groups:
Methods where the seller’s risk is high but the buyer’s risk is low.
– Methods where the buyer risk is high but the seller’s risk is low.
In the first method, the seller usually sends the goods and then receives the money from the buyer, but in the second method, the seller receives the money from the buyer before sending the goods.
Currently, the most common and important payment method in commercial transactions is the letter of credit method, which has special rules known as uniform letter of credit rules (UCP-500).
Definition of letters of credit: It is an obligation that the credit issuing bank undertakes to pay the claims of the credit beneficiary or the seller in return for obtaining certain documents requested by the credit applicant. This payment is made either through your currency (B / E) or by credit (L / C).
* Your B / E currency is written by the exporter or seller and sent through the beneficiary bank and is accepted by the buyer or importer and the exporter can receive the amount immediately by presenting this document to his bank. This is negotiable for you. Is.
* L / C letter of credit is a contract form according to which the credit opening bank, at the request of the buyer or importer, allows another bank called the broker bank to pay the maximum amount of credit if the seller submits the shipping documents of the traded goods. N. The broker bank then sends these documents to the buyer bank. Credentials, unlike you, are non-negotiable.


Foreign exchange earnings are one of the most important tools for economic growth and development, which is achieved through the sale of products or services to other countries and it is called export.
Exporting and selling goods in foreign markets has certain subtleties and sensitivities that failure to pay attention to them may lead to the destruction of financial and human capital.

The steps of exporting are:
A: Marketing: is the first and most important step in exporting. Marketing means knowing the foreign markets and ways to penetrate it. Achieving this knowledge through negotiating with buyers, using official information and statistics, participating in international exhibitions, contacting business advisers in embassies and chambers of commerce, as well as inquiring about International institutions and centers that provide services in this regard are possible. Also, identifying competing goods and their quality and price in the target market and using advertising methods to introduce the goods have an important role in the success of an exporter.

B: Obtaining an export license: After marketing, the exporter must obtain an export license from the Ministries of Industry, Agriculture or Commerce, but currently the export of most goods does not require a license and only occasional licenses are issued for certain goods.

A: Export pricing: The exporter must refer to the rating commission to determine the price of his export goods. This commission is composed of representatives of the Ministry of Commerce, the Export Development Center (current Trade Development Organization), the Ministry of Industry, Customs of Iran and the Central Bank. After determining the export price, the exporter is required to introduce the equivalent of the set currency prices to the central bank.

D: Issuance of proforma (pre-invoice): The exporter must send the proforma or pre-invoice which contains the specifications of the product and its seller to the buyer.

R: Preparation and packaging: At this stage, the exporter must prepare the goods and pack them in accordance with the agreement.

F- Receipt of goods inspection certificate: This certificate, which is usually requested by the buyer, is issued by the institutions that have been agreed upon by the parties.

Issuance of invoice and obtaining a certificate of origin: At this stage, the exporter must issue an invoice for the sale of his goods and submit it to the local Chamber of Commerce for approval, and the Chamber of Commerce will issue a certificate of origin.

N- Deposit of foreign exchange contract or commitment: The issuer must submit the foreign exchange contract to the bank (Office of Purification and Export Affairs) by presenting the necessary documents, including the price approved by the rating commission.
Now that export conditions have become easier, instead of a foreign exchange contract, the issuer receives a foreign exchange commitment from the bank and, after signing it, undertakes to return the foreign exchange earned from the export.

M- Transport and insurance contract: The exporter signs a transport contract with one of the reputable international transport companies and also insures the goods until they reach their destination.

E- Declaration of customs goods: At this stage, the goods are transported to customs and an export or export declaration is prepared and submitted to customs. After evaluating the goods and sealing the packages, an exit license (export license) is obtained.

Q- Sending the goods: The exporter delivers the export license to the transportation company and the said company issues the shipment bill of lading based on it and loads the goods from the customs and transports them to the destination.

Sh- Receipt of deposit letter: If the goods have been issued as an opening of documentary credit, the exporter can provide the shipping documents to the bank of the party.