In international trade, trade in goods is done according to custom and justice. The customs and habits of different nations are different and cause problems in international transactions. These problems can appear in different aspects of contract implementation. The parties to the contract are not aware of the customs and habits of each other and after concluding the contract, they face questions in which each has a different answer: how to procure the goods. ? Who is responsible for preparing the licenses, permits and customs formalities that are necessary for the goods to cross the border?
The contract for the transportation of goods and insurance will be concluded by the seller or the customer and at what cost? Where is the exact place of delivery? How is the guarantee transfer? Under what circumstances will the seller receive the price of the goods sold? How will the packaging be done and who will bear the costs? How is the inspection of goods and their compliance and non-compliance with the promised goods and at whose expense? And what are the consequences?
Over time, the customs and habits of different countries take on a cohesive form, so that in some countries a standard answer can be provided for all the questions raised. It is later used in specific terms. However, these terms are common in different countries and due to the dispersion of the terms, the parties to the contract do not know and can not be aware of the exact extent of their duties and responsibilities in international trade. There are cases where such terms exist in two countries, each dealing with it differently, so that the limits of duties and responsibilities of the seller and the customer in one method of transportation vary from country to country: for example, Germany’s long-term performance on FOB shipping The BOF was more limited than in other Western countries: in Germany only the cost of shipping by FOB was borne by the seller, while in other European countries the risk was borne by the seller.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, with the rapid increase of international transactions, it was necessary to find the same answers to the same questions and to create a unified procedure in international transportation, which required more speed than before. To this end, various organizations around the world, the most successful of which was international trade events, developed a set of international rules to interpret the most common trade terms in foreign trade.
The International Chamber of Commerce first collected the existing terms and a comparative study on the customs and habits of different countries, and by finding commonalities, brought them closer to each other and finally presented them to merchants as a set of coherent rules governing international transportation. It is an undeniable fact that international trade is not included, and at least once a year that chamber reviews the proposed set of rules. Since 1936, which was the year of the first publication of international regulations for the interpretation of commercial terms, it has been revised several times, the first time being in 1990.
International rules for the interpretation of international trade terms have been so successful that there is little contract in international trade that does not use one of these terms in relation to transportation, to the extent that its interpretation requires us to study the subject further. The article looks like.
In ship insurance, the insurance company is responsible for compensating the damage to the hull of the vessels, depending on the type of cover of the vessels. In some covers, 3.4 liabilities due to collisions as well as public losses are covered. Therefore, in ship insurance, damages due to the following risks are covered
Damage to the ship as a result of the following hazards:
* Fire and explosion
* To score a goal or hit a cliff
* Insured float collision with other vessels
* Collision of aircraft or similar vehicles or objects from which they fall to the insured, collision of insured with land vehicles, pond repair equipment and coastal facilities
* Earthquake, volcanic eruption or lightning
* Accidents resulting from loading, unloading or moving goods (or fish caught on fishing vessels)
* Boiler burst, shaft failure
* Public losses and rescue costs
* Damage to fishing gear (in the case of fishing vessels)
If the insured ship collides with another ship, whether floating or fixed, and the insured is found liable for damages, the following items are payable.
* The loss or damage of another ship or the cargo of that ship or any other object
* Reasonable delay or loss due to non-use of another ship or its cargo. Public loss share, rescue costs (contractual or non-contractual) can be paid to another ship or its property.
Details of ship insurance coverage:
The property and benefits that are provided by insurance companies under the name of ship insurance are:
Hull and Machinery: Hull and Machinery
If the hull and machinery are covered by insurance, the insurer undertakes that in the event of loss of the ship or damage to the hull, machinery and facilities due to the occurrence of any of the insured risks, loss Compensate to the insurer up to the maximum amount specified as the insured value in the insurance policy according to the terms of the insurance policy. In this case, the insurer’s obligation is to compensate the insured object.
In case of loss of the insured amount or the value of the day of the ship, whichever is less, will be paid, unless the insurance of the ship is insured based on the agreed amount. In this case, the insurer owes the obligation to pay the agreed amount. And if the value of the day of the ship is less than that amount. In case of damage to the ship, the insurer’s obligation will be to compensate the cost of repair and the price of its replacement parts and accessories.
Obviously, the payment of minor damages will be the responsibility of the insurer if the ship is also insured against such damages in Total loss insurance, and if not if the ship is insured
The insurer will be obliged only in case of complete destruction of the ship (real or hypothetical). Marine contract system
It is a contract by which the shipowner agrees to hand over his ship or part of it to a trader or other person called a lessor for the carriage of goods from one port to another and to receive a fee in return. Or rent your ship for a certain period of time, in which case the amount paid is called rent.
In general, a ship can be rented in two ways:
A- Renting a ship barefoot and without a crew (Bareboat Charter), in which case it can be considered as a full rent of the ship. The lessor pays all the expenses of the ship, employs the captain and the staff of his choice on the ship, and pays their wages himself.
B- Renting a ship with the captain and related crew:
Voyage Charter Clauses
1- Introduction: Charter parties start with a short introduction. In the introduction, the name of the parties to the contract, the name of the ship, its current specifications and location, and the approximate date of the ship’s readiness at the port of loading shall be entered.
2- Product specifications: In this article, the name of the product and how it is packaged (in bulk, bag, net, etc.) are given. Usually the quantity of goods is limited between a minimum quantity and a maximum quantity. For example, it is said that 50,000 tons of barley in bulk with 2% + and 2% – change at the discretion of the shipowner, which means that the shipowner can load a minimum of 49,000 tons and a maximum of 51,000 tons of barley in bulk. It is always necessary to mention the placement coefficient of the product or its approximate amount in this section.
Period of time allowed to present the ship at the port of loading: It is the period of time during which the owner has the right to present his ship at the port of loading. If the ship arrives at the port of shipment before the start of this period, the lessor is not obliged to start loading. If the ship is not ready to load the goods before the deadline in the port of loading, the lessor has the right to terminate the contract.
4- Port or place of loading goods: Port or place of loading goods is always mentioned in travel charters, which may be brought in different forms. Sometimes only one port of a specific geographical area is at the lender’s choice, in which case the lessor has the right to send the ship to one of the ports of that area at will. If the port of loading is specified and named, the ship must go to that port. And if a special wharf is mentioned in that port in the contract, the ship is forced to go to that specific wharf.
Sometimes the port of loading is not explicitly named, in which case the lessor can sponsor the ship as he wishes and asks the lessor to send the ship to a safe and secure port in the area.
Whenever more than one port is agreed for loading, the shipowner requests that the loading ports be identified in the correct geographical order.
5- Payment of rent: If the contract is not conditional for payment of rent, the fare can be paid according to the usual trade method at the time of delivery of the goods in the port of evacuation, but if the method of payment is stated in the contract, it will be acted upon.
6- The right to seize and seize the goods: The owner of the ship has the right to claim and seize the goods as long as he has not received the rent, lost rent, late losses and damages resulting from the seizure of the ship. The lessor is responsible for paying the fare, lost fare, and late loss at unloading and loading ports.
In some cases, this article is about another (Caser Clause) and is listed as follows:
“The lessor’s obligations end with the loading of the goods and the payment of the rent, the lost rent and the late loss, and the shipowner has the right to seize and take the goods hostage until he receives the rent, the lost rent and the late loss.
7- Loading and unloading costs: Payment of loading and unloading costs in a charter party is agreed upon during the ship rental negotiations. This agreement may take various forms, in most cases the terms of the contract for the purchase of goods are the basis for agreeing loading costs. And discharge is placed. The following are some examples of loading and unloading conditions:
A. Loading and unloading costs are the responsibility of the ship owner
B- The costs of loading, unloading and loading are borne by the lessor
C- Loading and unloading costs are the responsibility of the lessor, clearing is the responsibility of the ship owner
D- The eviction cost is borne by the lessor
E – Shipping costs are borne by the ship owner, unloading costs are borne by the lessor
Dangerous Goods (IMDG CODE)
Group 1: Explosives, which are divided into 6 sub-categories.
Group 2: Gases Flammable, non-flammable gases and toxic gases
Group 3: Flammable liquids
Group 4: Flammable solids, self-combusting and solids that are dangerous when moisture is reached.
Group 5: Substances that are subject to oxidation.
Group 6: Toxic substances Toxic substances
Group 7: Radioactive materials
Group 8: Corrosive goods and their dangers (Corrosives)
Group 9: Other dangerous goods and other items that are not covered by other groups.
Transportation of dangerous goods
Is the transport of dangerous goods subject to special rules and regulations that are reviewed once in a while and is in principle subject to the “Safety of life at sea convention” at sea? In order to comply with these regulations, such goods have been divided into different categories, which are:
? -Compressed and dissolved gases
Dangerous substances that react in the presence of air or water.
In many cases, the transportation of these goods not only creates other risks to the goods themselves, but also causes damage to adjacent goods. In principle, such goods, while they may damage adjacent goods, are also exposed to certain risks. Therefore, it is necessary to know the status of such goods and their chemical interactions in order to reduce the risk percentage with more awareness.
Trade by sea by type of commodity: crude oil, petroleum products and gas
Since the recession in the second half of ????, the demand for energy has been declining since the end of the year and continuing in ????, and therefore the volume of trade in petroleum products, including crude oil, petroleum products and liquefied petroleum gas. Natural and their loading by various types of tanker ships during the year ???? decreased by up to three percent. Loading of ?? /? Billion tons of oil products during ???? compared to ?? /? Billion tons loaded in ???? shows this decrease.
Crude oil loading
Crude oil shipments decreased by? /? Percent to ?? /? Billion tons during the year. Major crude oil producers, including OPEC members in West Asia, along with countries in transition in South and East Asia, Central Africa, South America, North Africa, West Africa, the Caribbean and Central America, accounted for the largest crude oil shipments. Allocated. The highest crude oil discharges occurred during the year in North American, European and South and East Asian ports, Japan and Southeast Asia. The strong growth in demand for oil in China, India and East Asia, and the rapid economic growth in South America, reflect the growing share of crude oil depletion in these areas. Due to the relatively large reserves of crude oil stored in developed countries and the decline in global demand for crude oil during the year ????, most importers of crude oil in developed countries recorded a decrease in crude oil shipments and their need to They have reduced crude oil imports.
After a good period before ????, the oil tanker market faced problems in the first half of ???? As the global economic outlook improved in the late 2000s, optimism about a future recovery in the tanker market was created and conditions for the market improved. Extreme cold in northern Europe and China, along with growing desire to rent cheaper tankers daily to accelerate the use of these vessels to store crude oil in hopes of reselling at higher prices in the future to support improved demand. Has helped with crude oil. The supply capacity of oil tankers, the fluctuation of crude oil storage during the year ???? AD has adjusted the excess capacity of tankers in the market. About ?? percent of the vessels under construction were not delivered to shipping companies to reduce supply under a pre-agreed schedule, while giant ships were reportedly used for storage purposes. Were they? . Global crude oil storage on giant tanker ships was estimated at at least 80 million barrels in the early 2000s.
Looking at the year ???? and despite the economic recession, the crude oil trade, contrary to the trend of the year ????, slowed down and resumed growth along with increasing the tonnage of its tanker ships. At the same time, it was expected that the year ???? would mark the end of the deadline for decommissioning of single-hulled tankers remaining in the market, but even scrapping the full carrying capacity of single-hulled tankers due to their significant inactivity. In the crude oil transportation market, the issue of excess tonnage of tanker ships did not affect. In addition, rising oil prices mean that the use of tankers to store oil will decrease and increase active tonnage in the market. Considering the damage done to the bulk cargo transportation market due to the recession, the conversion of tanker ships into bulk carriers did not seem reasonable, and in this regard, achieving a balance between supply and demand for tanker ships will remain a challenge. Remained.
Loading of petroleum products
The year ???? AD is considered a weak year for the ship carrying petroleum products in terms of the amount of goods transported, the structure and the geographical area of distribution of petroleum products. Demand for gasoline and diesel used by cars fell, while demand for other distilled products and products for industrial use remained unchanged. Declining demand for petroleum products has significantly increased the inventory of tanker vessels around the world. This was reflected in the reduction of shipments and shipments of petroleum products to? /? Percent total? / ??? million tons during ????. Developed countries? / ?? Percentage of loading and? / ?? Percentage of unloading of petroleum products in the world and developing countries? / ?? Percentage of loading and? / ?? Percentage of unloading of these shipments per year ???? AD. The outlook for the petroleum products trade grew during the year with a slight improvement in the world economic situation and an increase in demand from countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, as in the case of crude oil and the giant tanker sector, there has been an improvement in the petroleum products trading sector in the face of a significant expansion in the capacity of product-carrying vessels in ????.
Loading natural liquefied natural gas
According to the statistics provided by the British Petroleum Company, the trade of liquefied natural gas by sea has increased by. This statistic contradicts the declining consumption of natural gas extraction and the decline in natural gas transmission through the pipeline. Imports of liquefied natural gas to the United States increased by up to ?? percent during the year ???? due to severe cold, cheaper prices that made gas suitable for energy production compared to coal. This is a turning point in the previous decline in production, and raises questions about the validity of the US need to import natural gas in this huge volume. During the year ????, the import of natural gas to Europe increased slowly, while the United Kingdom became a full-fledged importer in the year ???? by importing? / Billion cubic meters of natural gas. . Major importers of natural gas in Asia, such as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, saw a decline in natural gas imports. This decrease is expected to reverse and increase due to the improvement of the economic situation and the increase in industry demand for natural gas. China imported less natural gas during the year than Japan and South Korea. With a defined path for China’s development, it will soon return to world markets as one of the largest importers of natural gas. The signing of a long-term gas purchase agreement by China from Qatar illustrates this fact. In the field of natural gas production, the main exporters of natural gas were in developing regions, and in terms of exports, Qatar was the largest exporter, followed by Malaysia, Indonesia, Algeria and Nigeria. The effects of the recession in ???? resulted in delays in launching some liquefied natural gas projects and delays in starting the construction of many more of these projects due to problems in providing financial facilities. Although there were problems with financing before the recession, the recession worsened the conditions for financing. However, the production of liquefied natural gas increased during the year ???? and all this increase was due to the activities of Qatar. The increase in liquefied natural gas trade is largely dependent on ongoing projects to convert natural gas to liquefied natural gas, which are expected to be operational between ???? and ????. While the outlook for liquefied natural gas maritime transport may be positive, a balance needs to be struck in the market for liquefied natural gas vessels in the short term. According to reports, the liquefied natural gas marine transportation sector, like other tanker maritime transportation sectors, was in surplus during the year, despite the large number of unloaded gas cargo ships.
Loading of dry goods: Primary and secondary dry bulk goods and other dry goods
During the year ???? Dry goods including dry bulk goods, container goods and other dry cargoes recorded the first decrease in the amount of goods loaded since ???? with a decrease of? /? Percent and reached about? /? Billion tons . The share of dry goods in the total loaded goods has been growing over the years and has accounted for a large share of the total loaded goods, ie? / ?? percent.
Main bulk goods: iron ore, coal, cereals, bauxite / alumina and phosphate rock
World trade in the five major bulk commodities increased by? /? Percent during the year ???? and reached? /?? Billion. The friction factor for increasing the growth of trade of the five main bulk goods has been identified as a result of a sharp decrease in the trade volume of bauxite / alumina by? / ?? percent and phosphate ore by? / ?? percent. This decrease is adequately offset by the increasing volume of iron ore and coal loading. Global dry bulk trade continued to flourish during the year, largely due to China’s $ stimulus package and massive infrastructure spending to support domestic demand.
During the fourth quarter of the year, the outlook for the bulk dry goods sector looked very bleak when the Baltic dry goods index fell. Following the fall of the Baltic index at the end of ????, steel production, the most effective stimulus for dry bulk goods, also declined sharply in ????, and this eight percent reduction in total world steel production to? / ???? million tons Brought down. Meanwhile, the demand for steel decreased during the year ???? equivalent? /? Surprisingly, the dry bulk commodity market did not perform as poorly as expected due to Chinese demand.
Loading iron ore along with coking coal Iron ore is the main raw material for steel production. Major producers of iron ore include Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Russia, South Africa, Sweden and the United States. Iron ore loading is estimated at ??? million tons per year, which is an increase of / / percent compared to the load during the year. In total, Australia and Brazil accounted for ?? percent of world iron ore exports during the year ???? and the world’s largest exporter of iron ore in ????, namely Australia with? / ??? million tons and Brazil with ??? Million tons of iron ore exports experienced a 17% increase and? /?% Decrease, respectively, compared to the previous year.
The import and unloading of iron ore in Asian ports helped to increase this activity in ???? more than the reduction of unloading in the ports of other countries of the world. The main engine of this increase was China that the country’s iron ore imports increased by? / ?? percent compared to ???? and the country’s steel production increased by? / ?? percent to ??? million tons per year ??? ? Reached and kept this country in the first rank of steel production in the world. Other steel producing countries such as Japan? / ?? percent, Western Europe? / ?? percent and South Korea? / ?? percent experienced a decrease in production during the year ???? compared to the previous year. With the exception of Egypt, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Qatar, other small importers such as Taiwan and Pakistan reduced their iron ore imports. It should be noted that during the year ???? global iron ore trade? /? Percent increased compared to ????. Although China’s exceptional performance in iron ore imports and steel production in ???? was not expected to be repeated in ????, but the country with the power to increase iron ore trade by sea during the year ?? ?? played an important role. As China makes active investments in overseas countries such as Australia, Africa and South America to supply the raw materials needed for its growing economy, demand for bulk ships and the iron ore trade pattern are likely to be affected. Took.
During the year ????, the loading of coal, including coal for burning and coking coal, reached a total of ??? million tons, which is approximately equal to the loading of ??? million tons of coal per year ????. Australia and Indonesia together accounted for? / ?? percent of the world’s coal loading for incineration in their ports. Indonesia, as the world’s leading coal exporter, loaded and exported coal with? / ?? percent increase? / ??? million tons in ???? At the same time, coal exporters have become increasingly concentrated in the Asian market in recent years. Colombia, for example, has begun transporting coal to the Pacific. South Africa is also seeking to boost its coal exports to Asia. The increase in coal exports to China, Taiwan and India was in line with and offset by a decrease in African exports to Europe and the United States. With a number of Chinese mines being declared unsafe and closed during the year ????, due to the affordable prices in the world market, the country’s imports of coke coal increased tenfold and coal imports for thermal consumption quadrupled. . The wave of coal imports to China caused congestion of ships in Chinese ports and consequently the main reason for the increase in coal freight to China.
Such import trends in very large volumes had a direct impact on the main shipping route and scale of the coal maritime transport market and would likely shape demand for bulk carriers. Coal transportation increased at a slower rate than coke in the coal sector during ????. The important issue in the year ???? was about coal price monitoring, which had a rapidly growing trend, and therefore the method of pricing with a variable coefficient became common in the coal trade market, and increasing the share in sales on a seasonal basis. Annual place was rated
Container transportation 1-4Container from the perspective of the responsibilities of the carrier and the insurer
As mentioned, the container is a new phenomenon that has emerged in the global transportation system and in fact the container has gradually replaced the “Lift Van”. The transportation system was universal. In the beginning, containers had different sizes, and in fact, each manufacturer produced containers according to their personal taste or the request of their customers, which caused some problems in transportation. As a result, the production of containers was standardized with world standards, and for this reason, the International Standards Organization recommended uniform containers with dimensions of 8.8 feet and lengths of 10, 20, 30 or 40. They were dead. The American Standards Institute recommended the same standards.
Different rules and regulations arose in connection with the transport of containers. Laws passed in the United Kingdom set the maximum land transport capacity at 32 tonnes, which included the weight of the container and its goods. Laws passed in England in 1968 limited the length of the vehicle to 13 meters, which was later increased to 15 meters, which is equivalent to 40 feet, and container transport was increased subject to the above rules.
Before using the container, the package in the transport system has a special meaning such as The following must be observed to claim damages against third parties related to container transport.
? Proof that the goods were at the disposal of the person in charge of transporting or delivering the goods (Bailee) at the time of the damage or accident.
? At the time of delivery of the goods by the carrier or the recipient of the goods (bailee) the package was missing or damaged.
? The consignee (bailee) delivered the goods at the time of delivery with obvious damages or did not deliver at all.
Conventional documents usually contain the above detailed information to prove the damage. In practice, the person in possession of the goods is responsible for delivering the goods correctly and safely to the next person, therefore after the goods are lost. The seller / sender leaves and is given to a large number of bailee recipients to eventually reach the buyer / recipient of the goods. Some goods are handed over to professional packing companies for packing before shipment and are delivered to the ground handler from the place of packing. Forwarders may play a role at this stage. Warehousing and port officials each have a role to play in loading and unloading. Customs authorities may inspect the goods before being loaded on board. In some cases, Stevedores are responsible. Loading or unloading of goods is done through duplication, which is ultimately responsible for the proper transportation and handling of the goods. The last person in this chain of people involved in unloading and loading goods is the “clearing agent” at the unloading port listed at the destination of the insurance policy.
Each of the above-mentioned individuals is responsible when the goods are in their possession, and therefore the insurer at the time of payment of damages must be able to take responsibility for one of the above-mentioned persons involved in loading, unloading and moving the goods in order to receive their damages. Have been to prove.
When the goods are transported by container, none of the people described above can visit and control the goods. The container is usually accepted as a “unit” and therefore the liability is limited to the delivery of the container, and for this reason the term “Said to Contain” is often found in the bill of lading issued for the transport of the container. It may have been issued when the goods were delivered to the container company’s warehouse before loading, which makes the problem more difficult and makes it much more difficult to prove responsibility.
*** Basically, in the custom of transporting by container, the work of picking goods in the container is called stuffing and the work of unloading goods from the container is called stripping.
Due to the length of this article, I will update this section in 2 posts.
Container Shipping – RO.RO Container Ships and Ships
Container ships are much more expensive to build than other shipping ships, but due to the economics of using and operating these types of ships, investors have been attracted to this, because these ships are compared to Other shipping ships will have lower port costs, which, if we take into account the minimum manpower factor, we will find that this has many benefits. Container ships have undergone many structural changes over the past half century, so that today insurers and maritime operators are actually faced with the third generation of such vessels, which have all the possibilities of extraordinary flexibility. They have a lot. With the development and expansion of container transport, the use and application of this type of ships will increase. These ships are built in such a way that they are able to accept different types of containers with different dimensions and weights, trailers, cars and other tools and equipment. The length of these ships is ??? meters and their width is ?? meters and their height? ? Meters and have (Draft) drinking water ?? meters. These ships have a special feature for carrying containers, whose hulls, machines and goods form huge investments and are in fact a kind of accumulation of risk, because the value of goods, ships and machines, including the value of the container. The figures are very heavy in the event of total damage.
These ships are at a speed of about ?? knots () which have a dead weight of “dead” tons and are able to carry the container on the deck. Usually such ships have approximately There are cells that can hold about ????? containers
? -? Refrigerated containers
Transportation of food with refrigerated containers has become very important and the use of this method is increasing. Container-carrying vessels are capable of carrying between a thousand and one thousand refrigerated containers at a time. The third generation has made it possible for the feed unit to operate jointly for all loaded containers, and this system has saved the use of ship space. In the maritime transportation system, this method is called “Port Hole”. In this method, cool and cold air is pushed into each container and after connecting to the system (Pneumo-Mechanical), it cools down. If we want to classify the goods that are transported using containers, the classification of the goods must be transported under special insurance conditions such as “Frozen meat clauses” and “or frozen foods” (Frozen food cluses). As follows:
? -? -? Goods that must be transported frozen, ie at a temperature below ?? Fahrenheit, such as meat, fish, butter.
? -? -? Goods that must be transported in a cool state, ie between ?? to ?? Fahrenheit, such as fresh meat, cheese, eggs and vegetables.
? -? -? Fruits that need a temperature between ?? and ?? degrees Fahrenheit during transport.
Bill of lading
In the case of maritime transport, the bill of lading is of great importance, as defined in the provisions of the Convention of the Nations, known as the rules of Hamburg, Germany.
A bill of lading is a document that indicates the shipping and delivery of goods or their loading by the carrier and the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods in front of the document and as mentioned in the sale of CNF, this document Legally, it has several characteristics.
?. It is a document that indicates the existence of a contract of carriage.
?. It is a proof that the goods have been delivered and are on the ship. In fact, it is a kind of receipt of goods and cargo.
?. It is a document that indicates the ownership of the goods, ie whoever holds it is the owner of the goods or the representative of the owner.
?. It is transferable, meaning that the consignment can be transferred to another by means of a bill of lading, such as a warehouse receipt.
?. Goods will not be delivered without a bill of lading.
Types of bill of lading
In maritime transport, bill of lading is divided into different types.
?. Goods loading bill of lading
Which is in fact a document from the year of birth to a specific destination and with a specific ship and at the request of the sender? The goods, and despite this document, the sender is satisfied and confident that he has delivered the goods to the buyer or his representative and holds the receipt in which it is necessary to mention the following points.
– The name of the ship in which the goods are loaded
– The date on which the download took place
Mentioning the characteristics of the messenger
Other conditions that are necessary are mentioned in it
?. Bill of lading (obtaining commercial property)
In some cases, the goods may have arrived at the port of origin for transportation, but the means of transportation must not have yet reached the port of delivery, or anchored at the port but not ready to be loaded. The goods must be exported stating that the consignor has in fact delivered the goods to the carrier but the loading has not taken place but whenever the ship is ready the goods will be delivered to be shipped.
?. Freight bill of lading with several ships
This bill of lading is issued when two or more ships carry goods from the port of origin to the destination, and it is usually used on long and intercontinental routes, which means that the bill of lading states that it carries ship from point A to port A. From another port, also called the intermediate or intermediate port, ship B is responsible for carrying it. In any case, whether the goods are transported by one ship or by several ships, the transport operators have full responsibility to deliver the goods safely to the destination.
Number of copies of the bill of lading
Article ?? The Maritime Law of Iran stipulates the number of copies of the bill of lading at least four copies. It is surrendered and the fourth copy is sent to the owner of the ship or to the person who is his legal representative.
It should be noted that all copies of the bill of lading are a copy that is valid for transporting the cargo in particular and therefore has a specific date, ie the date and number of all copies of the bill of lading are the same and the conditions for shipping goods are the same in all copies. And they are no different.