World Center for Customs Specialties
Customs is a vital institution for “good governance”, ensuring the welfare and prosperity of citizens and protecting the interests of society.
The World Customs Organization helps to protect and preserve the community and the wealth of the national economy by creating and developing an honest, transparent and predictable customs environment. This will boost international legal trade and make it possible to take effective action against illegal activities.
Mission of the World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization is an independent international organization whose mission is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of customs. It was established in 1952 as the Customs Cooperation Council and is the only competent international customs organization with 65 member states.
In line with its mission, the World Customs Organization:
Establishes, maintains, supports and expands international tools for the harmonious and uniform application of efficient and simplified customs procedures and systems governing the movement of goods, passengers and vehicles across customs borders.
Strengthens members ‘efforts to comply and comply with their regulations by striving to maximize the effectiveness of members’ cooperation with each other and with international organizations to combat customs and other trade offenses.
– By expanding communication and cooperation between members and with other international organizations, promoting integrity, human resource development, transparency, improving customs management and working methods, and using best practices, to members in their efforts to meet new environmental challenges. Commercialization and adaptation to changing circumstances. Helps.
A brief history
The history of the World Customs Organization dates back to 1947, when the 13th European Economic Cooperation Committee agreed to form a “study group”. The group considered establishing one or more European customs unions under the principles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1 (GATT).
In 1948, the study group formed two committees: 1. The Economic Committee? – The Customs Committee. The Economic Committee became the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 2, and the Customs Committee became the Customs Cooperation Council.
In 1952, the Convention establishing the Customs Cooperation Council was formally implemented.
The Council is the executive board of the Customs Cooperation Council, and the inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 26 January 1953 in Brussels. Delegations from seventeen European countries attended the first meeting of the Customs Cooperation Council.
After a few years, the number of members increased, and in 1994 the Council chose the name “World Customs Organization” as its working organization تا to clearly show that it has truly become a global international body. Currently, the customs of 156 countries are its members, which are operating all over the world and are in various stages of economic development. Today, members of the World Customs Organization are responsible for processing more than 95% of international trade.
World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization is a meeting in which member delegations meet and can resolve various customs issues at an equal level. Each member has one representative and one vote. The organization offers its members a set of conventions and other international instruments. Members of the World Customs Organization may also benefit from technical assistance and training services provided or with or by the Secretariat of the Organization.
The World Customs Organization is governed by the Council and the Policy Commission (24 members) and financially consulted by the Finance Committee (17 members). The World Customs Organization continues to work through committees and secretariats and carries out the work that the Council approves annually as a strategic plan of the World Customs Organization.
The main committees of the World Customs Organization are:
Standing Technical Committee, including the Subcommittee on Information Management
· – Executive Committee
HS Coordinated System Committee includes the Coordinated System Review Subcommittee and the Scientific Subcommittee.
· Customs Valuation Committee
· – Technical Committee of Rules of Origin
Actions of the World Customs Organization
Over the years, the World Customs Organization has made progress in coordinating customs procedures worldwide. These efforts have been met with considerable success.
The World Customs Organization has developed and developed a harmonized system for the description and coding of goods (HS), which is used worldwide as a basis for the classification of goods and the collection of customs revenues.
In June 1999, the revised International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention) was adopted by the Council.
The revised Kyoto Convention is a response to the growth of international trade, the rapid development of information technology, and the highly competitive international trade environment based on quality service and customer satisfaction, all of which have led to conflicts and inefficiencies in traditional customs procedures and practices. .
The World Customs Organization also presented the WTO Agreement on Valuation and, more recently, the “Harmonized Rules of Origin” presented for review by the World Trade Organization in Geneva, which will eventually be used by the WTO member states. Has done.
The World Customs Organization (WCO), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) را plan and work to remove remaining barriers to trade by simplifying and streamlining procedures and processes. They coordinate all over the world. The combination of the powers of the World Customs Organization, UNCTAD and the World Customs Organization will significantly facilitate both trade and commerce.
This commitment to participation is further reflected in the World Customs Organization (WCO) ‘s close cooperation with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The cooperation agreement between the two organizations seeks to standardize and further improve the capabilities of customs worldwide.
Although significant progress has been made in customs management so far, effective and efficient programs have not yet been uniformly deployed in all customs or in all regions of the world. In fact, many customs offices are still vulnerable due to very low efficiency and suffer from corruption. Given this, the World Customs Organization provides extensive technical assistance to members and a customs reform and modernization program to assist members seeking greater self-reliance through better use of resources, strengthening management capabilities, and designing procedures. Are efficient and convenient customs processes, procurement.
Harmonized Commodity Classification (HS) System
The language of international trade
The Tariff Nomenclature (HS) is used by almost all countries as a basis for collecting customs duties and taxes and compiling international trade statistics. Using a coordinated system (HS) ensures that the statistics obtained from customs correspond exactly to international standards. Currently, 176 countries and the Customs or Economic Union (including the 103 Contracting States (HS), which account for about 98% of world trade, use a coordinated system, so the coordinated system is one of the most important tools of world trade. goes.)
Although today the harmonized system is a tool to ensure the proper receipt of customs revenue, the primary impetus for its development during the 1970s and 1980s was the use of trade facilitation initiative.
Since then, the harmonized system has become the “true language of business.” Many studies show that both the private and public sectors have incurred heavy costs in maintaining different commodity classification systems in different countries. However, the harmonized system is designed to be an international standard system and to avoid double costs. But it should be noted that such costs can not be completely eliminated.
The World Customs Organization has developed this system for multi-purpose purposes and is currently using the basis in the following cases:
Collecting international trade statistics
Rules of origin
· Collection of domestic taxes
Trade negotiations (for example, WTO tariff concession schemes)
Shipping statistics and tariffs
Monitoring of controlled goods (such as weapons, narcotics, chemical weapons, ozone-depleting substances, endangered plant and animal species)
Areas of customs control and procedures, including risk assessment, information technology and compliance
The Coordinated System (HS) is supported by a “set of expert opinions on classification” and explanatory notes. This ensures the uniform and logical application of classification rules. In this way, 8 hassle-free clearance of imports and exports is possible. Because this is a very important element in creating a good working relationship between customs and traders.
All modern and computerized expression systems are based on a coordinated classification system. Conventional use of the harmonized system in the mentioned customs systems is essential in expanding the exchange of information between the customs. This is what stakeholders in trade see as the basis for eliminating unnecessary export and import formalities from one country to another and in integrated international exchanges.
Approximately 80% of the 156 WTO member countries can be classified as developing or transitioning to a market economy. The national income of many of these countries depends on customs duties and taxes. Developed countries still derive large amounts of their domestic revenue from customs duties and taxes. In the United States, customs duties and taxes amount to $ 18 billion a year. In the European Economic Community, 17% of the total income of these countries comes from customs duties and taxes.
The role of the World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization’s strategic plan for the harmonized system has three main objectives:
? – Ensure uniform interpretation and use of the coordinated system
? – Improving and updating the coordinated system in a way that reflects the changes in the technology of business models.
? – Expand the use of the coordinated system by customs and other government agencies, international organizations and the private sector.
Coordinated System Committee
Almost all countries use protectionist tariffs to support their domestic production, which leads to tariff disputes. Twice a year, the World Customs Organization’s “Coordinated System Committee” serves as the international arbitrator for resolving disputes concerning the classification of goods in the Coordinated System. The Coordinated System Committee is a single international body that provides credible and valuable feedback on tariff classification.
Coordinated System Review Subcommittee
The committee is responsible for systematically reviewing the synchronized system nomenclature on a regular basis to assist the “coordinated system committee” to ensure that the synchronized system is kept up to date with developments in technology and business practices.
The Committee shall assist the Coordinated System Committee and the Coordinated System Review Sub-Committee in the most technical matters (especially matters relating to the classification of chemical products).
Nomenclature sub-management responsibilities and tariff and trade management
The sub-management of the nomenclature has a deputy, a manager, a technical supervisor and 10 technical staff and technical associates and has the following responsibilities:
1- Providing secretarial support to the work of committees, sub-committees and working groups (organizing meetings, preparing work documents, reports, etc.)
2- Leading missions related to technical assistance (regional seminars, training courses, كار expert delegations to develop a coordinated system, expert delegations to study tariff classification, كار expert delegations to assist in establishing or improving the efficiency of customs laboratories and courses) Multifunctional training system)
3- Providing technical advice on specific classification issues to member customs
4- Updating the synchronized system publications (such as the synchronized system explanatory notes, a set of expert opinions on the classification, the alphabetical index, the synchronized system product database, and most recently the printed coordinator source (CD-ROM) (CD-ROM).
Relations with the private sector
The work of customs requires the provision of services to the entire international business community. However, due to the fact that classification issues have to be raised by the member customs in the World Customs Organization, the participation of the private sector in this field has increased significantly.
The ICC International Chamber of Commerce has been invited as a representative of the private sector to attend all the meetings of the Coordinated System Committee as an observer, and in fact the International Chamber of Commerce regularly provides technical information on the classification of many goods. Advice is placed.
The World Customs Organization publishes and publishes numerous required publications, such as the synchronized system explanatory notes, the synchronized system commodity database (CD-ROM), and the coordinator (synchronized system training course available on the CD-ROM).
All these publications can be obtained from the “Publishing Services” section of the World Customs Organization. The World Customs Organization website also contains basic information about the Harmonized System, including the latest decisions of the Harmonized System Committee, and will soon prepare the Harmonized System Explanatory Notes and the Harmonized System Commodity Database in searchable formats.
Kyoto Convention 1: Participation of Customs in the Development of World Trade
The role of customs in facilitating world trade
Customs play a vital role in the growth of world trade and the development of international markets. Effective and efficient customs procedures can effectively affect the competitive economy of nations. In a highly competitive global environment, international trade and investment flow to places that are efficient, supportive, and facilitating. At the same time, it is fleeing from places that, in the eyes of businessmen and capitalists, are “bureaucratic, costly and risky”. Customs processes and systems should not act as or be construed as barriers to global trade and economic growth.
New production and distribution systems, linked to the tremendous potential of e-commerce practices, have made rapid and predictable customs clearance an important precondition for national success.
The International Convention on the Simplification of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention) came into force in 1974.
Since then, the growth of international transportation, the incredible advancement of information technology, and the highly competitive environment of international trade, based on the emphasis on quality service and customer satisfaction, have been influential factors that have led to conflicts and inefficiencies in procedures and practices. It has become a customs tradition.
Therefore, the World Customs Organization has revised and updated the provisions of the Kyoto Convention to ensure that the Convention is able to meet the current demands and requirements of world trade.
In June 1999, the WTO Council adopted and implemented the revised Kyoto Convention as a comprehensive blueprint for new and efficient customs procedures in the 21st century.
The revised Kyoto Convention is a tool that helps develop global customs practices, and with its widespread implementation, global trade becomes more efficient and predictable, and this is what modern trade needs.
The review process includes new and important concepts. These concepts include the use of new technology, the application of new methods in customs controls, and the willingness of private sector partners to partner with customs for mutual benefit.
Among the new principles governing the Kyoto Convention, ات Customs obligations to provide clear and predictable information to all those involved in various aspects of international trade are considered very important.
In addition, customs administrations are committed to using risk management techniques to cooperate with other relevant actors and traders and to implement appropriate international standards.
The revised Convention also has new and binding rules for all groups or entities that have accepted the Convention. A management committee will be formed to ensure that the terms and conditions are relevant and up-to-date.
The main and key conditions
The revised Kyoto Convention will increase trade facilities through legal requirements in the form of special chapters, appendices and clauses. These requirements describe in detail the simple but effective application of procedures to maximize facilities for goods and passengers. The general annexes to the revised Convention set out the following principles that advanced customs should follow:
– Simple and uniform procedures (standard procedures)
2- Continuous development and improvement of technologies related to customs controls
3- Maximum use of information technology
4- Partnership approach between customs and trade
The key elements of the revised Kyoto Convention to be implemented by advanced customs are:
? – Maximum use of automated and automated systems
? – Risk management techniques (including risk assessment and selective controls)?
? – Using the latest information received? To run selective programs (selection of clearance route-) Selectivity
? – Using electronic funds transfer
? – Coordinated partnership with other organizations and institutions
? – Make customs, rules, regulations and customs requirements available to all
? – Presenting a system of appeals or appeals in customs affairs
? – Formal consulting relations with the business sector
Guidelines for Annexes to the Revised Convention
The revised Kyoto Convention provides two guidelines for implementation to ensure that the simplified and modernized principles of the Convention are effectively applied by customs. Guidelines for simplification through the use of efficient and mechanized control techniques that represent the best practices are provided for each of the procedures and practices in the general appendix and specific appendices.
The present situation
Will the revised Kyoto Convention come into force when ?? Ratify or accept the amended Protocol to the Kyoto Convention (1974). ? The current members, Algeria, Australia, China, Lesotho, Morocco and New Zealand, have ratified the protocol. The eight current members are the Congo (Democratic Republic, Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Zambia and Zimbabwe).
It is imperative that customs and trade partners, in partnership, encourage governments to adopt the Convention as soon as possible.
Temporary Entry System (ATA): A tool for developing global trade
Temporary login system
The ATA temporary entry system is a system that allows the transfer of goods freely within the borders of countries and allows their temporary entry into the customs territory without paying customs duties and taxes. Goods covered by a single document called ATA? Are placed and guaranteed by an international system.
The term “ATA” is a combination of the French terms “Admission Temporaire” and the English term “Temporary Admission”.
Due to the useful role of this system, the international business community has benefited significantly from the simplification of customs formalities. No customs duties are levied on temporary entry goods placed under this system, because the ATM carne system has a guaranteed international value. Because the national institutions that issue ATA carnations have international credibility. These national institutions are customs-approved and depend on an international guarantee chain managed by the International Bureau of the Chamber of Commerce.
Carnet ATA is now a document that is widely used by the business world in international activities related to the temporary importation of goods.
Creating an ATA system
The ATA system is designed and built in response to the needs of diverse groups of merchants, including the transfer of their goods to commercial markets or international exhibitions, offering to potential buyers as a sample, or simply as a tool of their profession. Is. Such goods must be able to be transported quickly and easily across borders.
As a result, the Customs Cooperation Council, or the current World Customs Organization, ratified and enforced the Customs Conventions relating to ATA Carnet in 1961. In addition, it has implemented a number of other international conventions for specific types of goods.
Modernization of ATA system (Istanbul Convention)
Between 1950 and 1970, there was a dramatic increase in the number of international conventions, “treaties, agreements,” and other means of temporary admission, which confused the international trading community and complicated customs. In the early 1990s, the World Trade Organization decided to draft a large global convention on the temporary importation of goods, so that ?? The existing Interim Accession Agreement should be merged into a single international text.
The Convention on Temporary Admission was ratified in Istanbul in 1990 and became known as the “Istanbul Convention”. The objectives and principles of this Convention are as follows:
· Design a single tool to simplify and standardize the temporary entry formalities and replace it with all the recommendations and conventions related to the temporary entry. In other words, the issues covered by the previous conventions are now covered by the “Annexes” to the Istanbul Convention.
Each of the “Appendices” authorizes each of the temporary import goods imported for a specific purpose. For example, Appendix B.1. Covers goods that are used for sale in markets or exhibitions.
· Goods that have been imported without paying customs duties and as temporary imports, can not remain in the country for an indefinite period. The deadline for their re-export is specified in each of the annexes.
The goods must be returned to their original condition. These goods must not undergo any change during their stay in the country of temporary entry, unless they have been depreciated as a result of use.
Economic prohibitions or restrictions on definitive imports نیست do not apply to temporary importation goods because definitive import goods are generally cleared for domestic consumption and restrictions or prohibitions are applied to them to protect national products.
Practical benefits of the ATA temporary entry system for the business community
The ATM system (ATA Convention and Istanbul Convention) has benefits for traders, traders and travelers, as well as customs.
ع Relevant customs duties and taxes are accepted only by providing a guarantee card from the customs offices. Therefore, there is no need to deposit cash or any other guarantee.
The ATA Carnet covers the carriage of goods in customs transit, on the way to or from the country of temporary entry and, if necessary, within that country.
During the validity period of the ATA carnet (usually one year), the goods may be temporarily imported under the same carnage into the customs territory of several Member States and whenever the holder wishes.
The affixed seal or the specifications of the goods provided by the customs can be identified by the customs offices of other Member States through whose territory the goods pass.
The practical advantages of this system are reflected in the increase in the number of member countries. The Interim Accession Convention is currently implemented by 62 countries and the Istanbul Convention by 38 countries.
Determining the customs value of goods
The agreement establishes a customs valuation system that primarily bases the commercial value of imported goods on the customs value, which is the price at which the imported goods are sold for export to the importing country, in addition to the arrangements for fulfillment. The transaction is paid or payable.
In cases where the customs value cannot be determined based on its transaction value, از one of the following methods is used:
? – Trading value of identical goods?
? – Trading value of “similar goods”?
? – The method of “inferential value”?
? – “Computational value” method?
? – “Reverse check” method?
The above value determination methods are applied based on hierarchy.
Benefits of implementing the agreement
The purpose of this agreement is to provide a uniform system with fair, uniform and uniform characteristics for determining the value of goods imported to customs. A system that is consistent with commercial realities and deems the imposition of arbitrary or unrealistic customs value illegal. This agreement, with a clear definition of value, states that the determination of customs value should, as far as possible, be based on the actual price of the goods.
Determining the value of more than 90% of world trade based on transaction value and price adjustment based on objective and quantitative information, this agreement provides transparency, predictability and stability of trade, while facilitating international trade, compliance with national laws and regulations. Guarantees.
As of June 1, 2000, 78 WTO member states had applied for membership of the agreement.
The role of the World Customs Organization
Strategic plan of the World Customs Organization? In implementing the WTO Agreement, it pursues three goals for its members:
? – Assistance to less developed and developing member countries to fully implement the World Trade Organization (WTO) Valuation Agreement
Encourage members to interpret and implement this Agreement in a transparent, predictable and uniform manner.
Ensure that members agree with the principles governing the WTO Agreement through the use of appropriate working methods
Technical Committee for Determining Customs Value?
WTO Agreement تعیین The WTO has made the WTO responsible for implementing and managing this agreement through the Customs Valuation Technical Committee.
The responsibility of the Technical Committee, which meets twice a year, is to ensure uniformity in the interpretation and application of the agreement at the technical level.
The Technical Committee has a close working relationship with the WTO Committee on Customs Valuation – which manages all aspects of the trade policy of the Agreement. Important responsibilities of the Technical Committee are:
? – Investigate specific technical problems resulting from the day-to-day operation of Member States’ customs valuation systems and provide advisory opinions on appropriate solutions based on the information provided. The decisions of this committee are issued in the form of “advisory opinions”, reports, case studies, etc. and are published in the collection of expert opinions on customs valuation.
? – Providing information and providing advice on issues related to determining the value of imported goods at the request of member customs.
? – Study the rules of valuation, procedures and practices related to the agreement
Facilitate technical assistance to member customs with a view to further expanding international understanding and acceptance of the agreement
Responsibilities of the Technical Board of Value Determination and the Board of Trade and Tariff Affairs
The sub-management of value determination consists of the deputy manager and six technical staff and technical associates and has the following responsibilities:
? – Providing services to the technical committee on determining the customs value (convening meetings, preparing working documents, submitting reports, etc.)
? – Management of technical assistance boards (training courses, workshops, seminars, expert boards)
? – Providing technical advice on specific issues related to valuation to member customs at their request
? – Development of specific projects within the framework of the obligations of the agreement of the World Customs Organization
Customs relationship with the business community
The valuation agreement is considered a positive step in the liberalization of international trade. One of its goals is to strengthen cooperation and mutual trust between the business community and customs. For this reason, the agreement sets out reciprocal rights and duties for customs and traders. As with all customs controls, facilitation and compliance (with regulations) should be provided in parallel with the implementation of this Agreement.
Without sustainable systems, commercial interests will not be well served. This is because engaging and establishing effective relationships with stakeholders in trade is essential to optimizing the efficiency and effectiveness of WTO value-added tools.
At the international level, the World Customs Organization has maintained close long-term cooperation with the International Chamber of Commerce in determining customs value. The International Chamber of Commerce has participated in all the meetings of the “Technical Committee” as an observer since 1979, and has had the opportunity to explain specific aspects of business practices and to provide its views and guidance on specific technical issues. This has led to a greater understanding of members of the business community and a face-to-face and transparent exchange of views on both sides. (ICC)
In May 2000, the WTO and the International Chamber of Commerce issued a joint statement expanding the global application of the WTO Customs Valuation Agreement.
Synchronization of preferential rules of origin
Rules of non-preferential origin
Rules of non-preferential origin can be used as an important criterion in trade policy. These rules alone do not constitute a trade instrument, but may be used in conjunction with other non-preferential trade policy instruments, such as anti-dumping duties and taxes, security measures, marks of origin and tariff quotas. These rules may also apply to government procurement and trade statistics.
> h3> Agree on rules of origin
In the Uruguay Round negotiations, the three participating countries realized that clarification of the rules and operations related to the rules of origin was urgently needed to remove obstacles to the flow of international trade.
Regulations governing the implementation of the rules of origin
Under this agreement, members are required to abide by the following principles:
1- Do not use the rules of origin as a tool for the purposes of trade policies.
2. Do not apply restrictive, distorting or destructive measures in international trade.
3- They should not discriminate between import and export or between members.
4- Apply the rules of origin in a coherent, uniform, non-invasive and reasonable manner.
5. The rules of origin should be based on useful and constructive criteria.
6- Publish laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings related to the rules of origin.
7- Upon request, provide assessments related to the origin.
8- Do not make changes in the laws of origin in order to turn to the past.
9- To provide the possibility of requesting an appeal (appeal) in the administrative measures related to determining the origin.
10. Deal with confidential information and issues.
Rules of harmonized origin
“Harmonized rules of origin” means coherent and comprehensible rules of origin that are expected to be developed in relation to non-preferential trade policy instruments through the participation and cooperation of WTO member countries. Once these rules are completed, they will become an integral part of the Rules of Origin Agreement.
As stated in the Rules of Origin Agreement, هماه Harmonized Rules of Origin shall:
Apply equally to all non-preferential goals listed above.
Be objective, understandable and predictable.
They should not be used directly or indirectly as a means to an end.
Be applicable in a coherent, uniform, non-biased and reasonable manner.
Be clear and understandable and based on precise criteria.
The role and interaction of the World Trade Organization and the World Customs Organization in relation to the coordination work program
International implementing agencies include the WTO Rules Committee, which reports to the WTO Council on Commodity Trade, and the WTO Technical Rules Committee, established under the auspices of the WTO, and responsible for technical matters. Is in charge. Membership in both committees is subject to membership in the World Trade Organization. However, the “Technical Committee of Rules of Origin” to members of the World Customs Organization who are not members of the World Trade Organization, as well as to international organizations such as the World Customs Organization, “Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development”, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development The Secretary-General of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the International Chamber of Commerce shall be allowed to attend meetings as observers.
Continuation of the coordination program by the World Trade Organization and the Committee of Rules of Origin
The Rules of Origin Committee is expected to review the status of the synchronization work plan and set a deadline for its completion. During a series of discussions, all members of the Rules of Origin Committee emphasized the importance of establishing harmonized rules of origin quickly to facilitate international trade. Members also agreed to continue their core efforts to finalize the backlog as soon as possible.
Ongoing responsibilities of the WTO and the Rules of Origin Committee under the Agreement
In February 2000, at the Eighteenth Session, it was decided to delegate the following permanent responsibilities to the Committee on the Rules of Origin of the World Trade Organization:
1- Providing technical assistance operations and training seminars in the field of coordinated rules of origin to members
2- Preparing a practical guide book on the harmonized rules of origin
3- Preparing and compiling “periodic reports” and “annual review”
4- Accepting the responsibility of comprehensive study of documents and review process in order to facilitate the implementation of harmonized rules of origin in the future
5. Revision of the rules of origin on the occasion of the reforms made in the harmonized system, technical progress made and any inconsistencies that arise in the implementation of the harmonized rules of origin.
Help facilitate trade
The purpose of harmonization is to determine a single source for each particular commodity for the purposes of non-preferential trade policy. Thus, both the public and private sectors can expect clear and predictable results by applying a single set of rules of origin. Although customs officers and traders may face a great deal of work in the early stages of implementing coordinated rules of origin, in the long run, the benefits of coordinating rules of origin will be as much appreciated as the coordinated nomenclature system.
Customs Information Model of the World Customs Organization
Customs Information Model of the World Customs Organization? Based on the basic principles and best practices, it will be as follows:
Business process modeling
The customs information model workflow includes the analysis and modeling of the procedures and processes set out in the Kyoto Convention. Based on this analysis, descriptive scenarios will be developed
Use of e-commerce technology and electronic information exchange
The information model for the various customs procedures and processes will be in accordance with the characteristics and requirements of the automated and automated environments that use e-commerce technology. Thus, the information model provides the basis for the development of common electronic messages (declarations of goods and consignments for import and export) based on international standards such as UN / EDIFACT or XML. This requires the development of common message structures for declarations of imported and exported goods or consignments, appropriate to the relevant business information flows.
Common source of information
The same requirements and requirements and the same form of information is the key to the customs information model project and is very important in creating trade facilities. For this reason, harmonizing information requirements for exports and imports, creating general definitions, and standardizing information content and forms are the cornerstones of the customs information model.
Separation of information requirements
The customs information model incorporates simplified procedures set out in the revised Kyoto Convention. This includes in particular the two-step import procedure in which customs clear goods on the basis of the minimum information required for control and other administrative tasks such as receiving customs duties and taxes and collecting trade statistics based on additional information after clearance. Goods are surrendered to customs, do.
The Customs Information Model project will also follow the concept of integrated information flow, so that import and export requirements are homogeneous and the relevant electronic declarations have a similar structure. This allows traders to exchange information economically and enables the importer to use export information as a basis for import formalities.
The WTO Customs Information Model enables customs to allow merchants to submit complete electronic declarations of goods and consignments provided by the WTO, provided that the messages sent contain the information and values required by Customs. . Customs receiving this information can extract the information they need and ignore additional information. This allows multinational traders to keep customs overhead costs low.
Single window environment
The WTO Customs Information Model project also intends to include other requirements and regulations of governments in the project in order to create a single window environment. By doing so, traders will be able to exchange information with only one official entity, preferably customs, to meet the legal requirements of import or export. Doing so requires the participation of other officials and international institutions in the WTO Customs Information Model project.
Group 7 Customs Initiatives (Seven Industrialized Countries)
The heads of state and government of the seven industrialized nations agreed at the Lyon Summit and their finance ministers in Birmingham and the Okinawa Summit – to simplify the customs information requirements of the Group of Seven countries and to formulate a format aimed at facilitating Standardize international trade and government spending cuts and business operations and economic growth used in electronic submission of reports. The G7 countries agreed to schedule the implementation plan until 2005 to standardize electronic templates. Some of these countries decided to implement the prototype in 2001.
The WTO Customs Information Model project will be a very important contribution to the World Trade Facility. Therefore, for the success of this project, it is important that the various business sectors involved in international trade have a comprehensive partnership.
G7 customs experts are examining long-term management strategies for their services, and see the World Customs Organization as an appropriate intergovernmental body that raises their operational standards – beyond the G7 framework – and gains international credibility.
human recourse devlopment
The Human Resources Development Service assists the World Customs Organization in carrying out its mission and achieving its goals – by coordinating the technical assistance provided by the various subsidiary boards.
Human Resources Development Services آموزشی Designs quality training programs and technical assistance with the aim of improving human resource management and developing the capacity of member customs.
Missions led by the World Customs Organization provide valuable tools for improving the skills of customs staff. This enables customs to deal with operational and technical problems that arise when implementing new strategies in response to international environmental challenges.
Assistance is usually organized in the form of specialized delegations, training courses, workshops or even seminars at the national or regional level.
The annual mission plan is based on the needs of the members and the priorities set by the council.
Human Resources Development Services organizes courses in which young customs officers provide research to members in one of the most important areas of customs, including secretarial, professional and job activities at customs. These workshops are designed to meet the specific needs of customs and provide their own assessment techniques to customs. At the end of the workshops, each participant “Practical National Integrity Plan”
Prepare. WTO’s integrity issues are currently focused on developing a mechanism for regional customs integrity and oversight. The purpose of these measures is to assist customs to meet a set of minimum standards set by the World Customs Organization. Cooperation with the private sector (International Chamber of Commerce) and other international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Transparency International is another way to strengthen the organization’s secretariat in the field of integrity.
Many of the steps that can be taken to reform the government to reduce corruption are the same steps that are taken to reform the government to increase its efficiency. That is, increasing government efficiency leads to reducing corruption. Mr. Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, at the first World Summit on Corruption in ?? In February 1999, he stated: “Customs are trying to increase their efficiency روند despite the accelerating trend of globalization and the increasing complexity of international trade.” Integrity is an important precondition for the proper functioning of customs. “Customs reform will only be useful if it is accompanied by effective strategies of honesty and commitment to its implementation.”
The “Arusha Declaration”, adopted at the 81st and 82nd sessions of the Council, expressed the will of the World Customs Organization to encourage its members to adopt laws governing their integrity and effective implementation. The Secretariat of the World Customs Organization provides working documents to evaluate the effectiveness of customs, and in this regard, the Center for Documenting Customs Integrity in ???? Has established.
Since 1998, the preparation and distribution of the code model of ethics and behavior of customs staff of the World Customs Organization and the organization of various national and regional seminars, tools for the development of nomenclature integrity, customs determination, synchronization and implementation of laws, customs procedures or human resource development Take over. Such programs last for six weeks. Students spend the first four weeks at the World Customs Organization headquarters and then the remaining two weeks at one of the customs offices.
In order to respond to the problems arising from the expansion and acceleration of international trade, members developed the Customs Renovation and Improvement Program in the mid-1990s. The World Customs Organization carefully examines all members’ requests to ensure that the necessary conditions are met before the Secretariat and donors allocate significant resources to implement the program. The World Customs Organization offers flexibility strategies using all its tools and conventions. The World Customs Organization also plays a mediating role in drawing members’ attention to the provision of technical assistance and provides technical assistance to them according to the needs of the “Customs Renovation and Improvement Program”. Such contributions are based on the fact that there should be no rework and that the World Customs Organization is responsible for all technical assistance.
Human Resources Development Services implements a set of measures aimed at improving the standards of integrity in customs and facilitates and expands the exchange of information and experiences between members. Finally, Human Resources Development Services is the specialized center of the library for analyzing educational needs, designing and compiling educational programs, and selecting educational media design based on new information technologies.
The Kyoto Convention was revised.
One of the main tasks of the WCO since its inception has been to develop simple and coordinated customs procedures for adaptation to the national laws of the member states. Therefore, in 1973, the World Customs Organization drafted a convention called the International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures, known as the Kyoto Convention, which has been in force since 1974. It was amended in 1995, approved by the council in 1999, and entered into force on 3 February 2006.
This convention is called the Kyoto Convention.
Standard 1- Coherent supply chain management
Customs administrations shall apply the integrated customs control procedures as set out in the WTO Customs Guidelines for Integrated Supply Chain Management.
Standard 2- Cargo inspection license
Customs offices should be allowed to inspect consignments when moving from the point of departure, in transit (including on deck) or when transiting.
Standard 3- Modern technology in inspection equipment
Intangible inspection (NII) equipment and radiation detection equipment should be available and used to conduct inspections based on risk assessment techniques. This equipment is needed to inspect high-risk containers and other cargo to avoid delays in legal trade.
Standard 4- Risk management systems
Customs offices should establish a risk management system to identify high-risk potential containers and automate this system. This system should include a mechanism for verifying risk assessment, targeting correctly, and identifying best practices.
Standard 5 – High risk cargo or containers
High-risk shipments and containers are those that do not have sufficient information that these shipments are low-risk and are characterized by high-risk tactical information, or are those based on risk tracking assessment methodologies based on security-related information elements such as High-risk shipments are known.
Standard 6 – Previous Electronic Information
Customs offices must require the provision of prior electronic information on goods and container shipments in a timely manner in order to enable a risk assessment.
Standard 7- Specifying the purpose and communication
Customs offices should use a standardized set of targeting criteria and conditional communications or information exchange mechanisms for joint targeting and inspection. These elements will help in the future development of a system of mutual recognition of controls.
Standard 8 executive measures
Customs offices should prepare and maintain statistical reports on executive actions such as the number of consignments inspected, the detection of high-risk consignments, the inspection of dangerous consignments.
Standard 9- Sharing evaluation with other authorities
Customs offices should cooperate with other competent authorities to conduct security assessments regarding the movement of goods in the international supply chain and to take immediate action to identify identified problems and gaps.
Standard 10 – Integrity
Customs offices and other relevant authorities should be encouraged to take the necessary measures to prevent errors and slips by their employees and to identify and combat breaches of integrity.
Standard 11- Security inspection of outgoing cargo
Customs offices must carry out security inspections of high-risk containers and consignments leaving at the reasonable request of the importing country.
B) “Customs Department with Commerce”
Standard 1- Participation
Authorized traders in the supply chain will conduct a self-assessment process in accordance with pre-established security standards, which is the best way to ensure that its policies and internal arrangements provide adequate protection against risks posed to related shipments and containers. When cleared through customs controls at the destination.
Standard 2- Security
Authorized economic operators will integrate the best pre-determined security measures into their existing operations.
Standard 3- Motivation
Customs offices, together with representatives of the business community, will design accreditation procedures or procedures for recognizing the quality of work that motivate the business sector to be recognized as an authorized economic operator. These processes will assure them that they can benefit from investing in security systems as well as appropriate measures, including reducing customs inspections and speeding up their clearance process.
Standard 4 – Technology
All parties will maintain the health and accuracy of operations related to the clearance and maintenance of cargo and containers through the use of new technology facilities.
Standard 5- Communications
Customs offices will regularly update customs-trade partnership programs to improve minimum standards and best trade chain security measures.
Standard 6- Providing facilities
Customs offices will cooperate with authorized economic actors to increase security and facilitate the supply chain of international trade when exporting or transiting through customs territory.