The share of maritime transport in international trade
The share of maritime transport in international trade

خانه The share of maritime transport in international trade

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The share of maritime transport in international trade

The share of maritime transport in international trade

The share of maritime transport in the movement of goods in international trade is about 90% of the total trade. This amount in terms of tonnage is about six billion types of goods, of which about one third is oil goods and one third is goods. Dry and bulk and the rest are non-bulk goods. Given such a percentage of the movement of goods in world trade, the importance of trade and maritime transport can be examined as two inseparable parts.

It seems that providing efficient services in maritime transport is one of the necessary and effective parameters in conducting successful international trade. Examining the development trend of trade reflects the simultaneous development of such transportation, efficient transportation will certainly increase international trade. Will somehow affect shipping costs. Therefore, transportation can be introduced as the main tool for the development of international trade and meeting the various needs of economic actors.

The development of shipping capacity has been almost identical to the development of the movement of goods, but transportation costs still constitute a significant part of the cost of goods for the consumer, these costs in developing countries due to The vacuum in the infrastructure facilities as well as the necessary equipment in providing fast and timely services that should be in the service of transportation is caused.

Developing countries typically pay a higher rate for shipping their cargo as a percentage of CIF’s import value, including rent and insurance, as well as land transportation costs and transit fees and other related costs in these countries are very expensive. Is more than developed countries.
According to UNCTAD estimates, freight costs to landlocked developing countries are about 16 percent, and to other developing countries about 11 percent of their import value. It can put additional pressure on traders and have adverse effects on world trade.

UNCTAD also provides an analysis of the factors influencing transportation rates, including sea freight rates, port tolls, and land transportation costs.
UNCTAD has found that the rate of such transport for developing countries, which is about 8.65% of the value of imported safe goods, is twice as high as for developed countries. Carrying it makes up only 4.4% of the value of Saif Varati goods. The main reason for the high transportation rates in developing countries is the government monopolies that apply in this sector.
Port tolls are another factor influencing the cost of transportation, as such costs are much higher in developing countries than in developed ones. Port costs do not end with port fees and tolls, but the lack of adequate hardware systems in the ports of such countries is not equipped with the necessary equipment to provide faster and better service, causing more ships to stop at the dock so that Both tolls will increase and due to delays in such ports, the shipowner will add an extra cost in excess of the actual shipping rate to his freight. Lack of proper software system and lack of efficient management in some developing countries will help increase port costs, so that long warehousing time due to administrative bureaucracies in the system will cause more fees to be paid to owners of goods as warehouse fees. Creates. UNCTAD experts, meanwhile, recommend that customs, port and terminal operators, as well as land transport operators, work together to move cargo faster and reduce such costs.
In some developing countries, the increase in transportation rates is not only due to the shipping rate, but sometimes the domestic land transportation rate is higher than the sea rate. The high rate of domestic land transport in such countries is due to the problems and obstacles of domestic road transport in these countries. In African countries, road transportation costs 2 to 3 times more than in other countries.

One of the reasons for the growing cost of domestic transport costs in developing countries is the lack of real competition between transport service providers, which leads to an increase in costs per ton per kilometer, lack of capacity of inland waterways, roads and Railway, poor maintenance of infrastructure, lack of communication and network links between different points, cumbersome and problematic regulatory framework, lack of service integration, poor management of road and rail transport, as well as other issues Which increases domestic transportation costs.

Advantages and Challenges:

Globalization has created a smaller world and connected its constituent members. So that any investment in one part of the world can create jobs in a remote country or vice versa.

Turning the world into a small complex may provide a cultural and economic fusion, and careful scrutiny must be done to ensure that the interests of all countries are served. While world economic growth grew by 2.4% in the 1990s, trade growth grew by up to 200%. This pattern is also predicted for the first decade of the 21st century. The growth of international trade is due to the General Agreement on Trade and Customs (GATT), which has been in force since 1948. As a result of the second round of negotiations in 1994 in Uruguay, many obstacles to free trade were removed, and by 2000 world trade volume had increased by 50% compared to 1994. Some experts believe that the two factors behind the growth of telecommunications technology, which allows ordering in a matter of seconds, and the reduction in shipping costs, which have dropped by 70% in the last 20 years, have played a major role in increasing trade.

Large industrialized countries rely on industrial automation to set up industries in any country, and automation reduces their need for skilled manpower. One third of the trade exchange takes place between industrialized countries. Studies show that cooperation for the production of, for example, a car between countries is easy. From a commercial point of view, Uruguay has been very influential in the growth of world production because the barriers to investment resulting from countries’ decisions based on national interest or security or the legal vacuum in the relevant agreements have been reduced. A noteworthy point here is the free flow of capital in the form of credit around the world. The daily volume of transactions in the world amounts to 1.5 billion dollars.

The basis of globalization of the economy based on liberalization in the field of trade is investment, the realization of which will require the abolition of restrictive laws of countries. Importantly, start-ups and local industries may be at risk. Today, many countries are members of the World Economic Organization, and other countries have applied for membership. Joining this organization requires the acceptance of free trade agreements in all areas from agriculture to the observance of commercial goods royalties.

Decision-making in this organization is based on consensus, in a way that rich countries are usually decisive. Despite opposition, the organization seeks to hold a new round in Qatar. Some believe that the biggest struggle in this way is to regulate the system. In implementing structural programs, the organization requires countries to change their structure in a way that minimizes government spending and increases foreign revenue. This requires the following three steps:

Encourage an export-oriented economic system and create a free domestic market for imported products
– Privatization of state industries
– Elimination of subsidies allocated to food and fuel

The dramatic growth of foreign investment over the past twenty years is considered one of the greatest benefits of globalization. In particular, foreign investment has been made in recent years under the programs of that organization in the sector of developing countries.

Statistics show that in 1999, 76% of foreign investment amounting to $ 636 billion was invested in developed countries and the rest in other countries. In this sector, investment in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. It has a large share and the countries at the bottom of the table have not benefited from this investment.

The world’s revenue is estimated at $ 200 billion to $ 500 billion for 2002. China has been hailed as the most successful outcome of globalization because millions of people in the country have benefited from dramatic increases in income and social opportunities under the liberalization policy. Proponents of globalization believe that those who are most affected by the rigors of a free economy will benefit most in the long run.

In the East Asian crisis of 1997-98, financial instability in these countries and reliance on the global market could provide an experience for countries to anticipate this new issue and provide solutions and capabilities to deal with these new threats. In other words, not thinking about this can destroy the progress made over the years in a matter of weeks.

One of the undeniable benefits of globalization is job creation. Globalization is projected to create about 20 million jobs in developing countries in the near future. However, this figure does not exceed 2% of the jobs available in these countries.

Over the past six years, the volume of global exchanges has increased by 50%. On the other hand, experts believe that the increase in the volume of huge exchanges in the world has caused the production of greenhouse gases and as a result has caused global warming. Some believe that some of these exchanges are unnecessary. Opponents of globalization are calling for a halt to the policy, given that global trade is projected to double by 2010. They believe that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, by implementing the policy of production and export of natural resources, including timber and minerals, in developing countries, have caused environmental degradation in these countries. In 2000, the bank approved a $ 365 million Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline project that has been criticized for crossing tropical forests. In this regard, the World Environment Organization has named the second priority against the globalization program.

Globalization items:

1- Agriculture:

The organization’s agricultural agreement calls on its members to consolidate and adjust government disruptive trade support, both at the general level and for each commodity. Technically, the two categories are called stabilization and adjustment (total amount of support). The amount of this support varies for different countries. Countries can waive this support to some extent. The minimum exemption is 10% for developing countries and 5% for developed countries. In China, which recently joined the organization after a 15-year effort, Given the average value of $ 250 billion in production and the amount of government support for production, which amounts to less than 2% of the total value of production, the amount of support announced in the agreement has reached zero.

2- Services (transportation – insurance – 1): Globalization of economic activities

Along with the structural changes in international relations, economic organizations inevitably emerged in order to preserve group and collective interests, and a kind of economic globalization took shape that continues to expand and spread. Transportation, as part of its economic activities, did not shy away from this movement, and each branch of transportation moved in a way towards globalization or following a general public order and regulations at the global level. In the field of maritime transport, due to the relative profitability of the activities of this branch of transportation compared to other types of transportation and its globalization, it means that using the experiences and technical and scientific achievements of different countries is necessary and in addition it is necessary to observe Some of the points of environmental safety and health require global cooperation, which has been the subject of globalization and is still expanding.

Regional alignment

The natural and obvious result of the globalization of the economy, the creation of new systems of industrial organization and the development of financial markets will lead to a convergence and group and collective tendency, whose main goal and vision will be to maintain timely and coordinated interests and support of members against others. In the field of transportation, small and large convergences have occurred in the regions and even internationally. The establishment of unions and organizations and working groups and various and mixed bilateral or multilateral companies in various fields of transport such as the European Railways, the Organization of the Transport Union ECO and the like are all among them to create more coordination of functions and The preservation of group interests has also been created.
In general, following the performance of the global economy in developing countries as a solution that may be able to solve the problem of such countries has always been the focus of decision makers and policy makers in those countries. Accordingly, the issue of transportation and related activities will include modeling of international and global performance. Joint air and sea transport companies and …. and concluding bilateral or multilateral transport agreements and the like have made efforts in this regard, “Scoop” as a global and international organization in addition to pursuing the issue to provide a way Provides advice and solutions to these countries.

The agreements show that the acceding countries are obliged to release even the part that is considered as the state monopoly of insurance in the country within the agreed time within a limited period of time (5 years) and to pave the way for activities in the field of group insurance and health insurance. , Pension, and full ownership of non-life insurance subsidiaries. China, for example, which had a 20% monopoly on state-owned insurance, had created problems for China in the process of joining the organization. . Regarding the commercial rights of foreign companies, the acceding countries are required to comply with a timetable for granting operating licenses to foreign companies for the import and distribution of all goods and investments.

The agreements require China over a three-year period to liberalize investment with a 51% share of China in the country within one year of accession and to remove the 51% condition two years after accession and liberalization of foreign activity. Operate within three years after accession. In general, China was required to comply with the principle of national conduct with respect to nationals of international companies, including nationals of unregistered companies in China. It is agreed in the text that the conditions for granting commercial rights in this country will be reduced within a certain time frame and commercial rights will be granted in a non-discriminatory manner.

3- Communications:

Given that WTO members are required to accept foreign participation in telecom companies’ investments, and to increase their participation significantly during the agreed years after accession, it appears that in In the field of Internet and other types of value-added services, foreign companies immediately buy shares in companies in countries or set up large companies.
The presence of large corporations and communications giants will make the state-owned and private companies in the country face stiff competition, but an increase in network users could lead to more job opportunities for domestic producers.

4- Automotive industry:

Given that acceding countries will be required to impose tariffs on import bans and gradually eliminate tariffs, developing and industrialized countries will enter into intense competition with major global producers. In this way, if they do not build a proper platform, they will receive a severe blow due to the change and transformation caused by joining the World Trade Organization.

5- Banking:

Countries joining the organization are required by a timetable to be licensed by a foreign bank and licensed to conduct domestic transactions in the national currencies of countries with natural and legal persons.
Experts believe that foreign banks can easily occupy more than half of the domestic market in the short term. And enjoy a significant share of foreign currency deposits and national deposits and foreign currency loans and loans in the national currency of countries. Given the weakness of banking in developing countries, these countries expose themselves to inequality competition and hope to overcome the threatening competition of foreign banks by expanding services and strengthening cooperation and getting rid of uncollectible receivables.

6- Securities:

Countries are required to adhere to the principle of foreign investment and capital management and enjoy equal conditions. Due to the weakness of developing countries and the lack of companies active in the field of financial consulting and capital management, the field of activity of domestic newcomers to participate with foreign securities chambers is provided to benefit from their power and expertise. In some countries, especially China, foreign managers have been used in domestic capital companies to create joint ventures.

7- Textiles:

Given that most developing countries do not have the right technology, liberalization can be a concern for the industry in the short term. Therefore, if the factories are equipped with modern machines, we can look at exports and global markets without worrying about imports and competition.

8- Oil and energy:

In third world countries, volunteering for accession is mainly monopolized or quasi-monopolized by the government. This situation is no different for oil and energy importing countries and exporters. The organization requires countries to participate in the study, exploration, extraction, trade, distribution and transportation of petroleum products by the private and foreign sectors. In this regard, the Chinese already have a plan to enjoy a superior position compared to the international giants, and especially in the distribution sector, by establishing distribution stations in suitable locations, they have gained an undisputed position.

Transportation in Iran and globalization of the economy

The various branches of transportation in practice range from the activities and role of the private sector to the complete monopoly of the government. The private sector has the largest role and share in road transport activities and in most cases, except for the participation of governments in the construction and establishment of road transport infrastructure and mainly the establishment of a network of different types of roads, other activities related to this type. Transportation is at the disposal of the private sector. After this type of transportation, the maritime sector has one of the largest share of government activities.
It is necessary to explain that in all cases, a set of laws, regulations, rules and regulations, both in national, regional and international dimensions, govern the activities of all different types of transportation. Their basis is also the duties and responsibilities of governments and through it they apply tariffs, duties and the like to exercise sovereignty. What is clear is that the process of liberalization and increase of private sector development activity in transportation, like other economic activities, has been considered by governments and each of them has taken steps in this direction.

Laying the groundwork for Iran’s accession to the World Trade Organization with an emphasis on transportation

At the July 27, 2001 meeting, many countries supported Iran’s application for membership in the organization, but the US representative in the organization stated that Iran does not currently qualify for membership in the organization. Due to the decision-making system in this organization, which is based on the consensus of all members, the US action prevented Iran from accepting membership in the organization.
Despite US opposition, Malaysia’s representative to the WTO, speaking on behalf of developing countries, said developing countries supported Iran and would continue to press Iran’s supporters at the WTO to oppose At the request of Iran, give up. Meanwhile, diplomats from developing countries have stated at the WTO headquarters that the mere consideration of Iran’s request on the agenda in July 1980 is a sign of a softening of the US position on Iran’s membership in the WTO.

Necessity of long-term analysis:

The speed of global change, responding to the growing needs of society, creating a balance between limited resources and increasing and unlimited demand, necessitates foresight to study and analyze, analyze the positive and negative effects of decisions, rational and desirable use of Facilities should be smoothed. Since the desired and undesirable socio-political and economic effects and consequences resulting from decisions, it is possible to go beyond the time period of socio-economic programs, so the movement on the horizon and a longer period and in a sense Determining the vision and horizon to be reached becomes essential.
This horizon, which enables the method of near-sightedness (near-sightedness) to far-sightedness, makes choices, analyzes, and finding higher relationships within that horizon more rational, and as far as possible the undesirable effects of decisions seen. Nearby ones are more likely to occur. Of course, the current socio-economic conditions of the country and everyday life and decisions can be considered as factors in determining the perspective.
In the field of transportation activities, the provision of transportation facilities and the possibility of exploiting the investments made, determining the receivable horizons and prospects in the maritime sector is necessary. Because transportation provides transportation services required by various economic sectors, and the operation and activity of these sectors depends on the existence of infrastructure facilities such as roads, railways, ports and airports. The provision of these facilities and the areas of its operation can not be a function of daily life and decisions of the people of the hour, and having a horizon and time periods available in the field of transportation, increases the confidence and confidence of investment in various economic sectors.

Expanding international competitive market

The main achievement of the structural changes in international and regional relations is perhaps the expansion of the competitive market in various areas, especially the economy, which also extended to transportation activities, which is one of the main economic activities. This competition covers all branches of transportation and from the development of the expansion of activities related to maritime transport, including shipping and shipbuilding, the use of ports and free trade zones created in it to a significant increase in air, rail and road travel. The issue of competition in this industry is discussed in the form of competition according to economic benefits, speed, safety and the like.
Another type of competition and expansion of the international market may exist within each of the branches of transport, this type of competition in practice occurs between the providers of transport services in each of the branches of transport. The comparative advantage of maritime transport over other modes of transport, especially in cargo handling, has created a large and competitive market in this transport activity on an international scale. This competition has arisen both in the fields of providing maritime transport services, including shipping, shipbuilding, shipbuilding, and in the development, expansion and innovation of international trading ports in providing more and more extensive services. In addition to the significant benefits that exist in matters related to the provision of services in this sector, the prestigious and proposed ports in different places are also one of the most reliable sources of foreign exchange in different countries.

Maritime transport due to its special features and most importantly the possibility of travel in international open waters and in the shortest possible distance with distinguishing features such as the ability to transport and especially freight in large volumes and routes, sometimes very long, convenient time , Cheap price, physical health of the cargo and like it has a special place in different modes of transportation. And for this reason, the presence of new technology and modern technical innovations and tools in this branch of transportation has been used in a very wide range. Including propulsion, maritime control and navigation systems, mechanical equipment and devices and telecommunication and communication methods and the like, and in equipping, operating and operating large international ports in all possible fields, even segregation and classification of cargo, issuance of invoices and It looks like that.

Sincere words:

Membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) can provide opportunities for trade and business development, as well as business development. Examining the pros and cons shows that some believe that joining the organization is a necessity of the country today and to free the economy from dependence on oil exports should enter the organization. Another group believes that joining the organization will undermine economic independence (in terms of complying with the organization’s international rules).
However, given that Iran’s international trade volume accounts for about three-tenths of the total international trade volume, the WTO will enforce strict regulations by imposing heavy tariffs on non-member members after the expiration of the membership deadline. It can be predicted that exports will be uneconomic for non-member countries and the possibility of competition in the supply of goods will be reduced. Therefore, it is suggested to enter the bed:
– Make good use of the positive points of the WTO regulations as an opportunity to develop trade and increase exports and get rid of the oil-dependent unipolar economy, which has a very volatile and volatile price.
– Identify the negative points and impact on the country’s economy and during the negotiations, which according to China’s experience will not be a short time, proper planning is done and its effects are minimized.

Author: persian / Date: 2017-10-26
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