Export of goods
In the executive regulations of the Customs Export Law, it is divided into two categories.
1- Definitive export
2- Temporary export
Definitive export is the goods that are sent abroad for sale or consumption in countries outside of Iran, and temporary exports are the export of goods abroad for temporary purposes (eg repair or completion of goods, participation in exhibitions) and its return. It is called the country.
What is considered in this category is definite exports.
Necessary documents for export:
1- Obtaining a valid business card in the name of the issuer
2- Obtaining an export license (if the Ministry of Commerce has not agreed to export the desired goods).
3- Health and quarantine certificate (animal, vegetable – as the case may be)
4- Standard certificate (if the goods are subject to the mandatory regulations of the export standard).
5. Atomic energy certificate (as the case may be), which are also called conventional certificates.
6- Preparing the Packing List (if the goods are different)
7- Carpet ID (only for handmade carpets)
Export goods are divided into three groups according to the export license.
1- Authorized goods:
It is a commodity whose export does not require a license in accordance with the rules. (Criteria) refers to those arrangements that are legally necessary for the export of some goods, such as standard criteria, human health certificate, animal, vegetable
2- Conditional goods:
It is a commodity that can be exported with a license. After announcing the consent of the relevant ministries, which is called (general agreement), and after notifying the customs by the Ministry of Commerce for the export of goods subject to general agreement, the applicant will not need to refer to the relevant ministry or organization and obtain a case permit. .
3- Exported goods
It is a commodity whose export is prohibited by the holy Shari’a of Islam (on the basis of buying or selling or consuming) or by law. The government can prohibit the export of some goods according to the specific requirements and conditions of the time by observing the relevant laws.
Plant health certificate
According to Article 18 of the Executive Regulations of the Plant Protection Law, plant products exported from Iran to foreign countries are examined by quarantine experts and in case of good health, a plant health certificate is issued.
And this will not be done if the buyer does not request it.
Animal health certificate (certificate of veterinary organization)
According to Article 7 of the Veterinary Law of the country approved in 1350, the import and export of any type of live animal – fertilized egg – livestock sperm – raw animal products – drugs, vaccines, serums and biological materials, disinfectants, veterinary pesticides, materials Dense food, animal feed supplements and medicines needed to make the mentioned materials must be done with the consent of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture (Iranian Veterinary Organization).
If mandatory standard regulations have been set for the export of goods, it is necessary to obtain a standard certificate from the Iranian Institute of Standards and Industrial Research and submit it to customs.
Atomic Energy Certificate
In cases where the export goods are food or all kinds of scrap metals, etc., it is necessary to present the certificate of the Atomic Energy Organization of the country.
The form of justice
In cases where the goods received are more than one package and the contents of the packages are various and varied, it is necessary to provide a list that shows the contents of each package (pure and with a container).
Other documents required for export
The following documents are not required for submission to Iranian Customs but may be requested by the destination country or a foreign buyer.
1- Certificate of Origin:
Refer to the Chambers of Commerce, Industries and Mines to obtain a certificate of origin with a photocopy of the customs declaration and the bill of lading.
What is the office work that is issued for the passage of goods by truck through member countries, without careful inspection and without the provision and receipt of customs duties and taxes.
3- Shopping list:
Invoice is an invoice in which the date, name and address of the buyer and seller, order or contract number, quantity or quantity or description of the goods, unit price, total price, type of contract and customs tariff of the goods are mentioned.
4- Shipping bill of lading:
In general, the bill of lading is the main document of transfer of ownership of the goods from the seller to the buyer and has different types such as air bill of lading – sea bill of lading – railway bill of lading – national bill of lading land bill of lading (truck)
5- Inspection certificate:
It is a document issued by one of the international inspection companies and according to which it is confirmed that the transported goods are the same as the registered registered goods.
2- Obtaining a license
3- Determining the export price by the rating commission
4- Issuance of proforma
5- Preparation, preparation and packaging
6- Receiving the goods inspection certificate
7- Issuing an invoice and obtaining a certificate of origin
8- Signing a contract for transportation and insurance
9- Declaration of customs goods
10- Sending goods
11- Receiving a deposit letter or issuance certificate
Marketing is the most important step in export, knowing foreign markets and ways to penetrate it, knowing the nuclei of power, knowing competitors in the country is one of the most important parts that requires information about product quality, price and consumption in the buyer market.
Ways to obtain information in order to communicate with buyers are possible in the following ways.
A. Direct negotiation with buyers B. Use of official information and statistics
C- Participation in international exhibitions D- Refer to previous records of transactions
E- Contacting Iranian missions and embassies and- Inquiring from international institutions and communication centers
It should be noted that with the advancement of technology, access to information through Internet sites is the fastest possible way.
It is one of the important issues in the export of advertisements that should be in accordance with the ethics, consumption culture of the buyers of the goods and the target country, otherwise the advertisements may have a negative impact.
Obtaining a license
This step was explained in the documents required for export.
Determining the export price of the “Rating Commission”
At present, the exporter is not required to return the export currency as determined by the above commission.
Issuance of proforma
This step is necessary when the sale of goods to the other party is done through the opening of documentary credits and each proforma contains the following specifications.
* Seller name, address, telephone, fax and telex
* Proforma issue number and date
* Buyer name and address
* Name and technical specifications of the product
* Unit value of goods – Total value of goods (UNIT PRICE – TOTAL PRICE)
* Payment terms (PAYMENT CONDITON)
* PLACE OF LOADING
* Shipping and delivery conditions
* Validity of Proforma price (VALIDITY)
* Other conditions of “ORGIN COMMODITY”
Preparation and packaging
At this stage, the exporter is obliged to prepare the goods and prepare them according to the agreed schedule and according to the resulting conditions. The exporter must prepare the goods in accordance with the terms and conditions requested by the buyer and agree on the appropriate packaging. Packaging should be appropriate to the type of goods, type of transport and consumer market supply conditions to prevent damage and waste during transport, to create the necessary attraction in the buyer.
Receive goods inspection certificate
It is usually requested by the buyer of the goods, ie the goods must be sent as the buyer wants, in which case an institution will carry out this inspection by agreement of the parties. The deal is done.
Issuance of invoice and obtaining certificate of origin
At this stage, the exporter must issue an invoice for the sale of his goods in accordance with Proforma’s conditions and submit it to the Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines for approval.
Contract of transportation and insurance
In an international contract for the sale of goods, both the importer and the exporter want a contract that satisfies both parties and the contract is executed in the best possible way. Shipping goods from one country to another as part of a commercial transaction Can be associated with risks if the goods are damaged or destroyed or the delivery and payment of the price is not done for some reason, the relationship between the parties to the contract is problematic and there will be no way to sue to solve the above problem and guide the issuers of the Chamber of Commerce International has developed a standard set of standards for seller and buyer obligations in order to regulate the international sale of goods contracts and determine the responsibilities of each party. These terms are as follows:
Delivery of goods at work Ex Ex (EXW)
In this method of delivery of goods, the seller delivers the goods when it is provided to the buyer at his place of work (ie workshop, factory, warehouse, etc.) in such a way that it is not cleared for export and is not loaded in the vehicle receiving the goods. Give.
Therefore, this term indicates the minimum obligation for the seller and the buyer must bear all the costs of transporting the goods and the risks associated with it during the delivery of the goods from the seller’s place of work.
Free Along Side Ship (FAS)
The seller delivers the goods when the goods are placed next to the ship in the designated port of loading, and from this moment on, the buyer must bear all the costs of the goods and the risks of their loss or damage.
Delivery of goods at the place designated to the Free Carrier (FCA)
This term means that the seller delivers the delivery of the goods in a way that puts it at the disposal of the carrier designated by the buyer after clearance for export. It should be noted that the location chosen for delivery affects the commitment to load and unload goods at this location. If the delivery takes place at the seller’s place of work, the seller is responsible for loading, and if the loading takes place at another place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.
Free On Board (FOB) Delivery
Delivery of goods takes place when the goods pass through the edge of the ship in the designated port of loading, in other words, the buyer from this moment on will bear all the costs of the goods and the risk of loss or damage. The term FOB requires the seller to issue a clearance for export. The term only applies to transportation by sea or inland waterways. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods or pass through the edge of the ship, they must use the term “delivery of the goods to the designated place to the carrier” (FCA).
Delivered At Frontier (DAF)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods when, after clearance for export, not for entry, on the vehicle bringing the goods, unloaded, at the designated point and place at the border – but before the customs border of the neighboring country. – Provide. The term border can be used for any border, including the border of the exporting country. Therefore, determining the desired border by mentioning the name of the point and place in the above term is important.
Delivery of goods on the deck of the ship at the port of destination Delivered Ex Ship (DES)
The seller delivers the goods when he places them on the deck of the ship at the designated port of destination before clearance for entry to the buyer. The seller must bear all costs and risks of transporting the goods to the designated port of destination before unloading.
Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ)
Delivery of goods takes place when the seller puts it on the dock at the designated port of destination (dock) before clearance for entry to the buyer. The seller must discharge the responsibility for the costs and risks of transporting the goods to the port of destination before accepting the goods on the dock (cargo). The term DEQ requires the buyer to pay the goods for the entry of clearance and expenses of all formalities as well as salaries and duties, taxes and other costs related to the entry.
Delivery of goods at the place of destination with clearance and payment of customs duties and taxes Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer at the place specified in the destination after clearance for entry and if it has not been unloaded from the vehicle bringing the goods. The seller must be liable for all risks to the goods and their costs up to this point, including any fees and charges (this term includes liability and acceptance of the risks of customs clearance and payment of fees, customs duties and taxes, taxes and other charges) To accept the goods belonging to the destination country, if necessary.
Delivery of goods at the place of destination without clearance and without payment of customs duties and taxes Delivered Duty Unpaid
In this method of delivery of goods, the seller delivers the goods to the buyer at the designated place at the destination before clearance for entry and in a way that has not been unloaded from the vehicle of the goods. The seller must be liable for the risks to the goods and their costs up to this place, other than duties and taxes (this term includes the responsibility and acceptance of the risks of customs clearance and payment of fees, customs duties, taxes and other expenses) belonging to the goods Intend to accept if necessary. These rights and duties, as well as any costs and risks arising from the buyer’s failure to timely clear the goods to enter will be borne by him.
Carriage Paid to (CPT)
This means that the seller delivers the goods to a carrier of his choice, in addition to having to pay the cost of transporting the goods to the specified destination. In other words, the buyer assumes responsibility for all risks to the goods and any other costs after delivery. The CPT requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
Carriage And Insurance Paid to (CIP)
In this type of shipping contract, the seller delivers the goods to a carrier of his choice, in addition to having to pay the cost of shipping to the specified destination. The seller must also cover the risk of loss or damage to the goods during transport, for which the buyer is responsible. As a result, the seller must conclude an insurance contract and pay the premium.
Price of goods and rent up to Cost And Freight (CFR)
This term refers to the fact that the seller of the goods delivers the goods as the goods pass through the edge of the ship at the port of loading. The seller must pay the costs and rent required to transport the goods to the port of destination, but the responsibility for the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs arising from accidents that occur after delivery, is transferred from the seller to the buyer. The term CFR requires the seller to clear the goods for export and is only used for shipping by sea or inland waterways.
Price of insurance and freight to the destination port Cost Insurance And Freight (CIF)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods when the goods pass over the edge of the ship during loading. The seller must pay the costs and fare necessary to transport the goods to the port of destination, but the responsibility for the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs resulting from accidents that occur after delivery, is transferred from seller to buyer.
The seller must cover the risk of loss or damage to the goods during transport, for which the buyer is responsible, with marine insurance coverage. In other words, the seller pays the insurance contract and the premium, but the seller is only required to provide the minimum insurance coverage.
Declaration of goods to customs
The exporter of the goods, having a positive document (such as business card, issuance licenses, etc.), goes to the customs and prepares the export declaration. The declaration can be prepared by the owner of the goods and the lawyer of the owner of the goods. Some of the contents of the declaration are as follows Is a description.
– Name and address of exporters
Name and address of the right to work (declarant)
– Issuance permit number
Name of country of origin
Name of country of destination of goods (country of buyer of goods)
After completing the export declaration, the declaration and its attached documents will be examined in the Customs Document Compliance Department in terms of controlling the authority of the exporter or declarant and the accuracy of the documents and contents of the declaration.
After reviewing and matching the specifications of the consignment with the declaration and matching the contents of the package with the declaration by the customs assessors and paying customs duties (such as warehousing, freight, port cost, etc.) of the goods based on the type of shipping contract concluded with the buyer Will be sendable.
Receive a deposit or issuance certificate
After checking the shipment of the goods, the shipping company seals the declaration of the exported goods with the customs exit stamp and returns it to the exporter.